ENST 471 ppt5

ENST 471 ppt5 - !" # $ % & "...

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Unformatted text preview: !" # $ % & " '& ( Rick Dove % ! "! % ) " % % "* ) 2 /00-1 +,,- . /00-1 % 2 & ) % Hog and Population Densities 2500 2000 1500 hogs/sq mi 1000 people/sq mi 500 0 Duplin County Sampson % 1 3 5 & " 4 3! 1 2 " 6 Rick Dove 3 % ! " # % # ! $ % & & 7 7& 7 ) & % 8 8 7 7 7 " !9 : 9 ; 6 $" 8 ) 9 4 9 % % & # & () ) *, + ' " -* / . & % 0 1 0 & Urine/feces Production Houses NH3 Volatilization Waste Storage and Treatment Systems Land Application (i.e., spraying) Biogenic Emissions from Soil and Crops NH3 Volatilization NH3 Volatilization NH3 Volatilization Aneja et al., 2001 % 6 '/00<( '/00<( 1 " =& 7 7 7 ) ) $ > " Rick Dove % " +,,? & +,,? " 6 Area & Non-Road Mobile NOx 7.2% Cattle NH3 7.4% Turkeys NH3 4.0% Other Chickens NH3 1.9% Broilers NH3 5.2% Fertilizer Loss NH3 2.4% POTW NH3 1.3% Swine NH3 20.3% Large Industrial Inc. Electric NOx 23.0% Highway Mobile NOx 23.2% Human NH3 Industrial NH3 0.5% 0.5% Biogenic NOx 2.9% Total ≈ 0.3 Tg N yr-1 NH3 based on Battye, 1994 % 1990 1990 1990 8 NO22 NO % 1 SO22 SO OH˙ OH˙ HOSO2 O2 O2 HNO3 H2O H2O SO3+HO2˙ H2SO4 NH4HSO4 NH4HSO4 NH3 NH3 NH4NO3 NH4NO3 (NH4)) SO4 (NH4 22SO4 McCullouch, 1999 % 7 @ 0A B C +,0 ) ' E/00F( D6 > 7 "G >4 > /00?( "" "8 " > '; HE & & 7 7& 7 ) & % 8) 7 7 8 78 ) " ! % ; 7 2 "& ! ! " 5 '/00<(1 8) 2& ) > 7 2 $ " 5 " '/00?(1 * ! * $ ) 6 5 & * " 6 % " 7 3 7 "3 7 6 7& 5 E 7I )5 + 1 > J5 ) 3 5 E6 " % & 7 !" E ) ' E#> >E /00@ ( " 6 " > 7 ! %& 8) 6 )6 ' B@KE +?,( /<A " /<A "& " " ' ) E >& >E 6 2 /5D /00?( ) % 8) ! E/00@ Routes of Exposure to ABR Organisms Irrigation Drinking water % ENVIRONMENT rivers and streams Sea Swimming Sewage Manure spreading Farm effluents Offal FARMS Crops Poultry Fish Slaughter Harvesting Processing Handling Preparation Consumption HUMANS Urban Rural Animal feeds Sheep Pigs Cattle Institutions Contact Adapted from NcNab et al. 1996, Courtesy of Dr. Ruth Etzel High Risk Populations • Children • Elderly • Immunocompromised ; % " www.sciam.com/1998/0398issue/0398levybox3.html & & 7 7& 7 ) & % +>/ G />F ) +>/ />F 6 2 " " > 8 /00+ *2 2 +D< +0 A G '> >8 2 2 8 " 6 ( /00F > 6 % 9 L 6 USDA ERS., June 2001 % Hans Paerl % " Increased production changes in metabolism " accumulation decreased vitality 6 ' ( Relative index • ' • •& adapted from McCullouch 6 ( 6 Growth Curve Growth without N deposition Time of exposure to N Hypothetical growth curve (redrawn from Gundersen, 1992) % & 2" % 2 $ % " % 20 3 % 2 7 " 7 5 G 9 /+ /+ " +0>, +0>, & " '& & / ) /( ) % 6E/000 ?A % Climate Change National Security CARBON CARBON NITROGEN NITROGEN Economic Security % 9 7 7 7 7 7 2 6; E8 1 /000 8 6 2 N " 2 1 +,,- G /00. >"> 2 2M ) E $ 1 '+,,-( < "6 ' & % (1 /00? 8 1 /00- % & O8 7 C +@ ' 6; " ( P C />+ I " J' <6 '+0 .+@ A '+0 D '8 6 ( 6G 2 ( 7 &2 ( % 8 7 +00P +00P 7 7I 7& " " 'F " ) ) 6J @ ( " % 8) 7 7 6 7 7 7 ! 2 )6 K0A 1 ' )6 -@A 38 E& O Q )6 -@A " " )6 ,,>,,A ;9 9 $ ) " ( % /) 1 &! " " M 9 ) <) 1 " +) !2 >) 2 )M 8 1 M ) ! 1 2 " 9 Feed Animals Fertilizer Legumes Irrigation % ) Animals Crops Manure (Losses to environment or additions to soil) Modified from: Draft National Center Comments on Proposed EPA CAFO Rules 2001 % 8 8 7& 7 7 7 7 7 7 )D " 6 E $ G " 2 > > HD $ D >"> G >"> G $D & $2 G >"> >"> E E) E) ) ) % 7 7 78 " 7 " % & % " % !" ) " '! ( 1DD2 2 2 > ) > D > % Belt Manure Removal and Gasification system Belt •thermally convert dry manure to a combustible gas •liquid fuel recovery % " & 6 1 ) " 4 % ; 1 1 $9 E&% % 8 1& 6 8 $ "6 % 1& F % % % 6 74 7 )6 7 7 " " @0 . +00 +00 B C /0 " 2 " $ 8 " % 2 8 74 5 7 7 " & & 8 8 " " 2 " 6 6 2 % " 7 /" 7& " 7+ 1 H & C @00 R 8 " -0E 000 E2 % 2 & 7% 78 6 7 8 7& ) @0 8 8 " C 0>+KDR 9 " " "6 "6 % 7 & 7 " 79 " $2 = " = 2 8 " " "6 "6 % ...
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