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Unformatted text preview: Assessing Assessing and Protecting Our Watersheds
Human Impacts on Estuarine Processes ENST 471 November 4, 2008 Monitoring Monitoring
• Extensively discussed human impacts on watersheds and Extens di • • • • • •
estuaries estuaries How do we go about ASSESSING these impacts? Monitoring is an important part of determining the level of human impacts Monitoring plays an important complementary role to experimental research-the two are synergistic researchMonitoring can be conducted over the long term to assess trends (discussed FerryMon and ModMon with Hans Paerl) Assist in making management and regulatory decisions E.g. Shellfish sanitation actions, stormwater regulations all depend on monitoring data to regulate resources Monitoring programs Monitoring programs
• Exist in estuarine systems because of wide range of potential human • • • • •
impacts Not all monitored parameters are dangerous, some can be pa parameters that are an indication of ecosystem condition (e.g. ecosyste co (e Chlorophyll a) Oils, hydrocarbons, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), Chlorinated hydrocarbons, heavy metals, and inorganic nutrients are monitored chemical compounds and elements monitored chemical compounds and elements Light penetration, turbidity, total suspended solids Water quality includes monitoring of microbial contaminants (total coliforms, fecal coliforms (of which a major componet are E. coli), enterococci) Monitoring gets a poor reputation when not conducted properly Why monitoring programs can fail Why monitoring programs can fail
• Objectives for monitoring are not clearly, precisely stated • • • •
and understood Monitoring measurement protocols, survey design, and Monitoring measurement protocols, survey design, and statistical statistical analysis become scientifically out-of-date out-ofMonitoring results are not directly tied to management decision making decision making Results are not timely nor communicated to key audiences It is key for scientists to communicate with the regulators and managers Bacterial Bacterial water quality
• Pathogenic bacteria of concern may be native to ocean
sp., Staphylococcus sp.)
(Vibrio vulnificus, Vibrio cholerae) or introduced from vulnificus Vibrio cholerae or introduced from sewage, agricultural or urban runoff (E. coli, Salmonella • Indicator bacteria that we test for, to indicate the • • possible presence of these pathogens are total coliforms, fecal coliforms (of which E. coli is a subgroup), and (o enterococcus Most of the fecal indicator bacteria are NOT pathogenic (one exception is a specific strain of E. coli, O157:H7) O157 Fecal indicator bacteria are easy to measure, inexpensive, and relatively good indicators of the inexpensive, and relatively good indicators of the presence of pathogens of concern Freshwater Outlets Outlets And Storm Drain Pipes Are major Contributors Of Of contaminated Water to coastal areas SAMPLING FOR BACTERIA BACTERIA •Ankle depth • Use Standardized methods TESTING •Membrane filtration •Colilert® Enterolert®
SHOWN IS MEMBRANE IS MEMBRANE FILTRATION ...
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This note was uploaded on 01/03/2009 for the course ENST 471 taught by Professor Noble,rachael during the Spring '08 term at UNC.
- Spring '08