10.1007978-3-642-03658-3.pdf - Lecture Notes in Computer Science Commenced Publication in 1973 Founding and Former Series Editors Gerhard Goos Juris

10.1007978-3-642-03658-3.pdf - Lecture Notes in Computer...

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Unformatted text preview: Lecture Notes in Computer Science Commenced Publication in 1973 Founding and Former Series Editors: Gerhard Goos, Juris Hartmanis, and Jan van Leeuwen Editorial Board David Hutchison Lancaster University, UK Takeo Kanade Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, USA Josef Kittler University of Surrey, Guildford, UK Jon M. Kleinberg Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA Alfred Kobsa University of California, Irvine, CA, USA Friedemann Mattern ETH Zurich, Switzerland John C. Mitchell Stanford University, CA, USA Moni Naor Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel Oscar Nierstrasz University of Bern, Switzerland C. Pandu Rangan Indian Institute of Technology, Madras, India Bernhard Steffen University of Dortmund, Germany Madhu Sudan Microsoft Research, Cambridge, MA, USA Demetri Terzopoulos University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA Doug Tygar University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA Gerhard Weikum Max-Planck Institute of Computer Science, Saarbruecken, Germany 5727 Tom Gross Jan Gulliksen Paula Kotzé Lars Oestreicher Philippe Palanque Raquel Oliveira Prates Marco Winckler (Eds.) Human-Computer Interaction – INTERACT 2009 12th IFIP TC 13 International Conference Uppsala, Sweden, August 24-28, 2009 Proceedings, Part II 13 Volume Editors Tom Gross Bauhaus University Weimar, 99423 Weimar, Germany E-mail: [email protected] Jan Gulliksen Uppsala University, 75105 Uppsala, Sweden E-mail: [email protected] Paula Kotzé Meraka Institute, 0001 Pretoria, South Africa E-mail: [email protected] Lars Oestreicher Uppsala University, 75120 Uppsala, Sweden E-mail: [email protected] Philippe Palanque Marco Winckler University Paul Sabatier, 31062 Toulouse Cedex, France E-mail: {palanque, winckler}@irit.fr Raquel Oliveira Prates Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, 31270010 Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil E-mail: [email protected] Library of Congress Control Number: 2009932606 CR Subject Classification (1998): H.5.2, H.5.3, H.3-5, I.2.10, D.2, K.3-4, K.8 LNCS Sublibrary: SL 3 – Information Systems and Application, incl. Internet/Web and HCI ISSN ISBN-10 ISBN-13 0302-9743 3-642-03657-0 Springer Berlin Heidelberg New York 978-3-642-03657-6 Springer Berlin Heidelberg New York This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, re-use of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other way, and storage in data banks. Duplication of this publication or parts thereof is permitted only under the provisions of the German Copyright Law of September 9, 1965, in its current version, and permission for use must always be obtained from Springer. Violations are liable to prosecution under the German Copyright Law. springer.com © IFIP International Federation for Information Processing 2009 Printed in Germany Typesetting: Camera-ready by author, data conversion by Scientific Publishing Services, Chennai, India Printed on acid-free paper SPIN: 12740727 06/3180 543210 Foreword INTERACT 2009 was the 12th of a series of INTERACT international conferences supported by the IFIP Technical Committee 13 on Human–Computer Interaction. This year, INTERACT was held in Uppsala (Sweden), organized by the Swedish Interdisciplinary Interest Group for Human–Computer Interaction (STIMDI) in cooperation with the Department of Information Technology at Uppsala University. Like its predecessors, INTERACT 2009 highlighted, both to the academic and to the industrial world, the importance of the human–computer interaction (HCI) area and its most recent breakthroughs on current applications. Both experienced HCI researchers and professionals, as well as newcomers to the HCI field, interested in designing or evaluating interactive software, developing new interaction technologies, or investigating overarching theories of HCI, found in INTERACT 2009 a great forum for communication with people of similar interests, to encourage collaboration and to learn. INTERACT 2009 had Research and Practice as its special theme. The reason we selected this theme is that the research within the field has drifted away from the practical applicability of its results and that the HCI practice has come to disregard the knowledge and development within the academic community. However, to continue to develop and prosper, the HCI community needs to pay more attention to the cooperation and mutual learning between research and practice. We witness accidents happening in health care, airplanes crashing due to problems in their operation, we see tremendous money losses due to inefficiencies in computer support. On a smaller scale we find many tools and applications that are, if not difficult, annoying to use for reasons that are well known. At the same time we see an amazing development of new IT designs, games, robots and applications designed for pleasure and fun. IT is an essential source for efficiency and productivity in work as well as a large source of problems. For the future we need to learn from the positive development and reach for an understanding of the mechanisms behind the successes in order for us to let such processes influence the more challenged application domains. We hope that INTERACT 2009 provided such an inspiring meeting between research and implementation. INTERACT 2009 brought the conference to Sweden and the Nordic countries. Through conferences such as NordiCHI, the Nordic countries have come to be recognized as one of the major local communities within the field of HCI. Nordic participants are one of the biggest regional participation categories at HCI conferences in the world. The Nordic tradition of HCI focuses on utility, equality, participation and quality of our everyday life and work. We aim at continuing these traditions while being in the forefront of development of the HCI field. VI Foreword We hope that INTERACT 2009 will be remembered as a conference that brought research and practice closer together, focusing on making the computerized world a better place for everyone, regardless of functional abilities or particular requirements. August 2009 Jan Gulliksen Lars Oestreicher Note from the Technical Co-chairs You are holding the proceedings of the 12th Human–Computer Interaction Conference INTERACT 2009. The creation of this document is really a testament to the enthusiasm and collegial spirit amongst the HCI research and practitioner community worldwide. Thank you to all the authors who chose INTERACT 2009 as the vehicle to publish their research: a total of 723 submissions were received for the conference this year. Of these submissions, 244 were accepted for presentation at the conference. These include: – – – – – – – – – 104 Full Research Papers 79 Short Research Papers 7 Interactive Poster Papers 17 Workshops 12 Tutorials 3 Special Interest Groups 6 Demonstrations 3 Panels 13 Doctoral Consortium Papers The acceptance rate for the research papers was 29% of full papers submitted for review and 20% of initial abstracts submitted. The acceptance rate for the short research papers and interactive posters was 39%. Each research paper was reviewed by between three and six members of the International Programme Committee. Our sincere gratitude goes to the all the International Programme Committee members who willingly helped out and ensured the high quality of the INTERACT Conference papers was properly maintained. Although some people had to be bullied into reviewing (sorry about that), everyone submitted their reviews on time without a murmur of complaint. Thank you all for the effort that you so obviously put into this task. Finally we wish to express a special thank you to the Proceedings Publication Chair, Marco Winckler, who painstakingly put this volume together. August 2009 Paula Kotz´e Tom Gross IFIP TC13 Established in 1989, the International Federation for Information Processing Technical Committee on Human–Computer Interaction (IFIP TC13) is an international committee of 30 member national societies and 7 Working Groups, representing specialists in human factors, ergonomics, cognitive science, computer science, design and related disciplines. INTERACT is its flagship conference, staged biennially in different countries in the world. IFIP TC13 aims to develop the science and technology of human–computer interaction (HCI) by encouraging empirical research, promoting the use of knowledge and methods from the human sciences in design and evaluation of computer systems; promoting better understanding of the relation between formal design methods and system usability and acceptability; developing guidelines, models and methods by which designers may provide better human-oriented computer systems; and, cooperating with other groups, inside and outside IFIP, to promote user-orientation and humanization in system design. Thus, TC13 seeks to improve interactions between people and computers, encourage the growth of HCI research and disseminate these benefits worldwide. The main orientation is toward users, especially the non-computer professional users, and how to improve human–computer relations. Areas of study include: the problems people have with computers; the impact on people in individual and organizational contexts; the determinants of utility, usability and acceptability; the appropriate allocation of tasks between computers and users; modelling the user to aid better system design; and harmonizing the computer to user characteristics and needs. While the scope is thus set wide, with a tendency toward general principles rather than particular systems, it is recognized that progress will only be achieved through both general studies to advance theoretical understanding and specific studies on practical issues (e.g., interface design standards, software system consistency, documentation, appropriateness of alternative communication media, human factors guidelines for dialogue design, the problems of integrating multimedia systems to match system needs and organizational practices, etc.). IFIP TC13 stimulates working events and activities through its Working Groups (WGs). WGs consist of HCI experts from many countries, who seek to expand knowledge and find solutions to HCI issues and concerns within their domains, as outlined below. In 1999, TC13 initiated a special IFIP Award, the Brian Shackel Award, for the most outstanding contribution in the form of a refereed paper submitted to and delivered at each INTERACT. The award draws attention to the need for a comprehensive human-centered approach in the design and use of information technology in which the human and social implications have been taken into account. Since the process to decide the award takes place after papers are submitted for publication, the award is not identified in the proceedings. X IFIP TC13 WG13.1 (Education in HCI and HCI Curricula) aims to improve HCI education at all levels of higher education, coordinate and unite efforts to develop HCI curricula and promote HCI teaching. WG13.2 (Methodology for User-Centred System Design) aims to foster research, dissemination of information and good practice in the methodical application of HCI to software engineering. WG13.3 (HCI and Disability) aims to make HCI designers aware of the needs of people with disabilities and encourage development of information systems and tools permitting adaptation of interfaces to specific users. WG13.4 (also WG2.7) (User Interface Engineering) investigates the nature, concepts and construction of user interfaces for software systems, using a framework for reasoning about interactive systems and an engineering model for developing user interfaces. WG13.5 (Human Error, Safety and System Development) seeks a framework for studying human factors relating to systems failure, develops leading edge techniques in hazard analysis and safety engineering of computerbased systems, and guides international accreditation activities for safety-critical systems. WG13.6 (Human-Work Interaction Design) aims at establishing relationships between extensive empirical work-domain studies and HCI design. It will promote the use of knowledge, concepts, methods and techniques that enable user studies to procure a better apprehension of the complex interplay between individual, social and organizational contexts and thereby a better understanding of how and why people work in the ways that they do. WG13.7 (Human–Computer Interaction and Visualization) is the newest of the working groups under the TC.13. It aims to establish a study and research program that will combine both scientific work and practical applications in the fields of Human–Computer Interaction and Visualization. It will integrate several additional aspects of further research areas, such as scientific visualization, data mining, information design, computer graphics, cognition sciences, perception theory, or psychology, into this approach. New Working Groups are formed as areas of significance to HCI arise. Further information is available at the IFIP TC13 website: fip-hci.org/ IFIP TC13 Members Australia Judy Hammond Australian Computer Society Austria Horst H¨ortner Austrian Computer Society Belgium Monique Noirhomme-Fraiture Federation des Associations Informatiques de Belgique Brazil Simone Diniz Junqueira Barbosa Brazilian Computer Society (SBC) Canada Gitte Lindgaard (Secretary) Canadian Information Processing Society China Chengguing Zong Chinese Institute of Electronics France Philippe Palanque Societe des Electriciens et des Electroniciens (SEE) Germany Horst Oberquelle Gesellschaft fur Informatik Greece Nikos Avouris Greek Computer Society Iceland Marta Kristin Larusdottir The Icelandic Society for Information Processing (ISIP) India Anirudha Joshi Computer Society of India Czech Republic Vaclav Matousek Czech Society for Cybernetics and Informatics Italy Fabio Patern` o Italian Computer Society Denmark Annelise Mark Pejtersen (Chair) Danish Federation for Information Processing Ireland Liam J. Bannon Irish Computer Society Finland Kari-Jouko R¨ aih¨ a Finnish Information Processing Association Japan Masaaki Kurosu Information Processing Society of Japan XII IFIP TC13 Members New Zealand Mark Apperley New Zeeland Computer Society (NZCS) Nigeria Chris C. Nwannenna Nigeria Computer Society Norway Norwegian Computer Society Poland J. L. Kulikowski Poland Academy of Sciences Portugal Joaquim A. Jorge Associacao Portuguesa de Informatica Singapore Kee Yong Lim Singabore Computer Society South Africa Janet L. Wesson (Vice chair) The Computer Society of South Africa Spain Julio Abascal Federacion Espanola de Sociedades de Informatica Sweden Lars Oestreicher Swedish Computer Society Switzerland Ute Klotz Swiss Federation for Information Processing The Netherlands Gerrit C. van der Veer Nederlands Genootschap voor Informatica UK Phil Gray British Computer Society USA-Based John Karat Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) Nahum Gershon The Computer Society, Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers (IEEE-CS) Expert Members Jan Gulliksen Sweden Tom Gross Germany IFIP TC13 Members Working Group Chairpersons WG13.1 (Education in HCI and HCI Curricula) Paula Kotz´e, South Africa WG13.2 (Methodology for User-Centered System Design) Peter Forbrig, Germany WG13.3 (HCI and Disability) Gerard Weber, Germany WG13.4 (also 2.7) (User Interface Engineering) Nick Graham, Canada WG13.5 (Human Error, Safety, and System Development) Philippe Palanque, France WG13.6 (Human-Work Interaction Design) Torkil Clemmensen, Denmark WG13.7 (Human Computer Interaction and Visualization) Mark Apperley, New Zealand XIII INTERACT 2009 Technical Committee Conference Committee General Co-chairs Jan Gulliksen Lars Oestreicher Uppsala university and KTH Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm, Sweden Uppsala University, Sweden Technical Programme Co-chairs Paula Kotz´e Tom Gross Meraka Institute, South Africa Bauhaus University Weimar, Germany Technical Programme Committee Demonstrations Co-chairs Olav W. Bertelsen University of Aarhus, Denmark Janet C. Read University of Central Lancashire, UK Doctoral Consortium Co-chairs Else Nygren Uppsala University, Sweden Kasper Hornbæk University of Copenhagen, Denmark Full Paper Co-chairs Paula Kotz´e Tom Gross Meraka Institute, South Africa Bauhaus University Weimar, Germany Keynote Speaker Chair Mats Edenius Uppsala University, Sweden Panel Co-chairs John Karat Masaaki Kurosu IBM Research, USA The Open University of Japan, Japan Short Papers and Interactive Posters Co-chairs Philippe Palanque Raquel Oliveira Prates University Paul Sabatier, France Federal University of Minas Gerais, Brazil XVI INTERACT 2009 Technical Committee Special Interest Groups Co-chairs Ute Klotz Nikolaos Avouris University of Applied Sciences and Arts of Lucerne, Switzerland University of Patras, Greece Tutorial Co-chairs Fabio Patern` o Mats Lind ISTI-CNR, Italy Uppasala University, Sweden Workshop Co-chairs Anders Jansson Gitte Lindegaard Uppsala University, Sweden Carleton University, Canada Organization Proceedings Publication Chair Marco Winckler University Paul Sabatier, France Program Chair Bengt Sandblad Uppsala University, Sweden Sponsoring Co-chairs Tomas Berns Bengt Sandblad Ergolab, Sweden Uppsala University, Sweden Students Volunteers Co-chairs Elina Eriksson Uppsala University, Sweden Rebecka Janols Uppsala University, Sweden Website Co-chairs Lars Oestreicher Nils-Erik Gustafsson Uppsala University, Sweden Frontwalker/IT-arkitekterna, Sweden INTERACT 2009 Technical Committee Programme Committee Members Julio Abascal, Spain Silvia Abrah˜ ao, Spain Heikki Ailisto, Finland Xavier Alam´an, Spain Mir Farooq Ali, USA Dima Aliakseyeu, The Netherlands Margarita Anastassova, France Elisabeth Andre, Denmark Paul Andr´e, UK Daniela Andrei, Romania Jean-Yves Antoine, France Mark Apperley, New Zealand Cecilia Aragon, USA Liliana Liliana, Italy Carmelo Ardito, Italy Myriam Arrue Recondo, Spain Richard Atterer, Germany Simon Attfield, UK Juan Carlos Augusto, UK Nikolaos Avouris, Greece Cedric Bach, France Jonathan Back, UK Nilufar Baghaei, Australia Sebastiano Bagnara, Italy Rafael Ballagas, USA Cecilia Baranauskas, Brazil Simone Barbosa, Brazil Javier Bargas-Avila, Switzerland Louise Barkhuus, USA Len Bass, USA Konrad Baumann, Austria Gordon Baxter, UK Russell Beale, UK Elke Beck, Austria David Benyon, UK Francois Berard, France Regina Bernhaupt, Austria Karsten Berns, Germany Nadia Berthouze, UK Nigel Bevan, UK Nicola J Bidwell, Australia Jacob Biehl, USA Thomas Binder, Denmark Jeremy Birnholtz, USA Staffan Bj¨ ork, Sweden Renaud Blanch, France Ann Blandford, UK Eli Blevis, USA Pieter Blignaut, South Africa Florian Block, UK Susanne Bodker, Denmark Mads Bodker, Denmark Davide Bolchini, USA Marcela Borge, USA Ron Boring, USA Giorgio Brajnik, Italy Emily Brown, USA Mike Brown, Isle of Man Mihaela Brut, Romania Martin Brynskov, Denmark George Buchanan, UK Steffen Budweg, Germany Sabin-Corneliu Buraga, Romania Jamika Burge, USA Andreas Butz, Germany Jacob Buur, Denmark M. Claudia Buzzi, Italy Marina Buzzi, Italy Daragh Byrne, Isle of Man Paul Cairns, UK Eduardo H. Calvillo, UK Jos´e Campos, Portugal Pedro Campos, Portugal Stefan Carmien, Spain Luis Carri¸co, Portugal John M. Carroll, USA Tiziana Catarci, Italy Augusto Celentano, Italy Anxo Cereijo Roib´ as, UK Teresa Chambel, Portugal Olivier Chapuis, France Kelvin Cheng, Australia Keith Cheverst, UK Luca Chittaro, Italy Luigina Ciolfi, Isle of Man Torkil Clemmensen, Denmark XVII XVIII INTERACT 2009 Technical Committee Nathalie Colineau, Australia Karin Coninx, Belgium St´ephane Conversy, France Michael Cooke, Isle of Man Nuno Correia, Portugal Maria Francesca Costabile, Italy Adrien Coyette, Belgium Stefan Cronholm, Sweden Jo˜ ao Cunha, Portugal Mary Czerwinski, USA Carla Maria Dal Sasso Freitas, Brazil Peter Dalsgaard, Denmark Catalina Danis, USA Peter Dannenmann, Germany N...
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