PHIL 320 Essay - PHIL 320 Essay 2 Kantianism is a moral...

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PHIL 320 Essay 2 Kantianism is a moral theory that falls under deontology. Under deontology, one is obligated to follow certain rules and can never deviate, regardless of the consequences. The moral theory Kantianism was named after Immanuel Kant, he declared that actions must be judged on the intent of the action when it was made and whether or not it was done with goodwill. Kant said that we must act with duty for the moral law. An action can only have moral worth if it is done from the motive of duty. If an action is performed from the motive of inclination, it may or may not be morally impermissible—but it will never have moral worth. Kant has two versions of a categorical imperative to determine if actions are morally permissible. The first version is to act always in such a way that the maxim describing your action could be willed into a universal law. The form of a maxim is: I will do action, x, in circumstances, c. To turn the maxim into a universal law you must consider if the action would be desired or possible for all individuals to perform the action, if so, it can be considered morally permissible. The second version of the categorical imperative is to never treat a human being as a means to an end, rather always treat humans as though they themselves are the end. Utilitarianism is a contrasting, consequentialist moral theory proposed by John Stuart Mill. Consequentialism is the overarching theory that states to determine if an action is moral, you must anticipate the consequences of the action. Utilitarianism states that one should always act in a way to promote the greatest amount of happiness for the greatest number of people. The choice or action that yields the greatest amount of utility is called the optimific choice, and it should always be taken. Immanuel Kant and other Kantians do not believe animals fall under the moral community. This can be clearly laid out by the second categorical imperative which specifically names human beings as the only entities deserving to never be treated as means to an end.
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Furthermore, Kant himself specifically stated he did not think humans owed any direct duties to animals. Kant believed that because animals lacked reason, self-consciousness, and moral
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