Dental Anatomy & Occlusion.pdf - Dental Anatomy\/Occlusion Review for the NBDE Part I Presented by Eric Wong Kim Mai Overview 100 Questions Taken as

Dental Anatomy & Occlusion.pdf - Dental Anatomy/Occlusion...

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Unformatted text preview: Dental Anatomy/Occlusion Review for the NBDE Part I Presented by: Eric Wong Kim Mai Overview ! ! ! ! 100 Questions Taken as part of the final 200 questions of the exam (second half of the day) May have some overlapping questions from Anatomy Section, ie. TMJ anatomy, muscles of mastication, etc. Useful resources: Dental Decks, old exam questions, Isselhard & Brand’s Anatomy of Orofacial Structures, Kaplan Part I Review Book Helpful Hint #1 ! ! Write down everything on the margins of the exam booklet! (ie. tooth relationships, mnemonics, eruption schedules, primary and permanent teeth #s) Example: Dental Arch Relationships ! ! The maxillary arch is usually LONGER than the mandibular arch What does this mean? -Every maxillary tooth is more DISTAL than its opposing counterpart, therefore: 1) The only maxillary tooth with 1 opposing counterpart is the MAXILLARY THIRD MOLAR 2) The only mandibular tooth with 1 opposing counterpart is the MANDIBULAR CENTRAL INCISOR Useful Diagrams Dental Arch Relationships ! The maxillary arch is usually WIDER than the mandibular arch ! Therefore, Supporting (functional) cusps are MAXILLARY LINGUAL and MANDIBULAR BUCCAL cusps Guiding (nonfunctional, shearing cusps) are MAXILLARY BUCCAL and MANDIBULAR LINGUAL cusps ! Maxillary Cusps Buccal cusps: -Premolar cusps and the DB cusp of the maxillary molars overlap the embrassure between the counterpart and the tooth DISTAL to it, except for the maxillary 1st and 3rd molars (DB of maxillary 3rd molar only overlaps 1 tooth) -MB cusps of all maxillary molars overlap the counterpart’s FACIAL FACIAL groove st (MESIOFACIAL groove for 1 molar, central groove for 2nd and 3rd molars) -DB cusp of maxillary 1st molar overlaps the DISTOFACIAL groove of the mandibular 1st molar Lingual cusps: ! -2nd premolar cusp and the DL cusps of the maxillary molars contact the counterpart’s distal marginal ridge and the mesial marginal ridge of the tooth DISTAL to it, except for the 1st premolar & DL cusp of the max. 3rd molar (only contact 1 marginal ridge respectively) -ML cusps of maxillary molars contact the counterpart’s CENTRAL FOSSA FOSSA Question: Which cusps are represented by the arrows? ! ! Mandibular Cusps Buccal cusps: -Premolar cusps and MB cusps of mandibuolar molars contact the mesial marginal ridge of the counterpart and the distal marginal ridge of the tooth MESIAL to it -The DB cusps of the mandibular molars contact the counterpart’s CENTRAL FOSSA -The distal cusp of the mandibular 1st molar contacts the maxillary 1st molar’s DISTAL PIT ! Lingual cusps: -Premolar cusps and ML cusps of mandibular molars overlap the embrassure between the counterpart and the tooth MESIAL to it -The DL cusps of the mandibular molars overlap the counterpart’s LINGUAL GROOVE ! Question: Which cusps are represented by the arrows? ! Jaw Movements ! ! ! ! ! ONLY THE MANDIBULAR ARCH MOVES!!!!!!!!!!! Working (laterotrusive) movement = towards the side that the mandible moves towards Non-working (mediotrusive, balancing) movement = NOT the side that the mandible moves towards Protrusion = moving the mandible forward in an anterior-posterior plane Retrusion = moving the mandible backwards in an anterior-posterior plane Jaw Movement Diagrams ! ! ! Which way is the mandible moving? Are the teeth on the side that the mandible is moving towards, or are they not? Isolate the teeth in question! Working movement Right lateral (working side) movment Right lateral (working side) movement NOTICE MAXILLARY ARCH DOES NOT MOVE!! (Think in terms of where the mandible is moving in relation to the maxillary arch) Nonworking movement Left lateral (non-working) movement Right lateral (non-working) movement Protrusion Mesio-Distal Contacts (from facial view) Central Incisor Lateral Incisor Canine Premolars Molars Maxillary IJ JJ JM JJ MM Mandibular II II IM JJ MM IJ means the MESIAL contact is located in the incisal third (I) while the DISTAL contact is located at the junction (J) of the incisal/occlusal and middle thirds. Facio-Lingual Contacts (from incisal/occlusal view) ! ! Facio-Lingual Contacts: 1) CENTERED faciolingually for all ANTERIOR teeth 2) SLIGHTLY BUCCAL of the middle third for all POSTERIOR teeth Facio-Lingual Embrasures: Every tooth has a wider LINGUAL embrasure than FACIAL embrasure EXCEPT for the lingual embrasure between the MAXILLARY 1st and 2nd MOLAR (less wide), and MANDIBULAR Anteriors Heights of Contour ! ! Located in the MIDDLE third of the crown on: LINGUAL surfaces of all posterior teeth (both maxillary & mandibular) Located in the CERVICAL third of the crown on: FACIAL surfaces of all posterior teeth, and FACIAL & LINGUAL surfaces of all anterior teeth Tooth Embryology ! ! ! ! ! 6th embryonic week = the oral (stratified squamous) epithelium begins thickening. This thickened oral epithelium is known as the dental lamina. 8th embryonic week = continued thickening in the dental lamina in 10 areas of the upper arch and 10 areas of the lower arch Bud stage = initial budding from the dental lamina at the 10 thickened areas in each arch (the first stage in the development of the enamel organ) Cap stage = consists of three components: outer enamel epithelium, inner enamel epithelium, and stellate reticulum Bell stage = fourth layer of epithelium, the stratum intermedium, appears between the IEE and the stellate reticulum. Two processes occur: (1) future outline or form of the crown of the tooth is determined (2) changes in IEE lead to production of dentin and enamel starting with IEE cells becoming taller " secretion of dentin matrix " secretion of enamel matrix " calcification of dentin " calcification of enamel. Tooth Embryology ! Terminology: Dental papilla = forms the dentin and pulp of the tooth Dental sac = forms the cementum of the tooth, the periodontal ligament, and some alveolar bone Hertwig’s epithelial root sheath = made up of OEE and IEE that determines the shape of the roots Primary vs. Permanent Teeth ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! The crowns of the primary ANTERIOR teeth are wider mesiodistally and shorter inciso-cervically than their permanent succesors. The crowns of the primary MOLARS are shorter and more narrow mesiodistally at the cervical third than the permanents. The root trunks of primary molars are also very short. The cervical ridge of enamel at the cervical third is much more prominent in primary teeth. The BUCCAL and LINGUAL surfaces of primary molars are flatter above the crest of contour than on permanent molars, giving the appearance of a narrower occlusal table. The enamel rods on primary teeth point OCCLUSALLY at the cervical third, compared to APICALLY for permanent teeth (which is why there is no need for a gingival bevel for a Class II amalgam on primary teeth). The roots of the primary are longer, more slender, and taper more rapidly than those of the permanent molars The pulp horns extend higher occlusally and the pulp chambers are proportionately larger in primary teeth. The primary teeth are LIGHTER in color than the permanent teeth. The MESIAL CUSP RIDGE is longer than the distal cusp ridge in the PRIMARY MAXILLARY CANINE (the opposite is true for all other canines). Eruption Schedule – Permanent (in years) ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Mandibular 1st Molar – 6 Maxillary 1st Molar – 6 Mand. Central Incisor – 6 Max. Central Incisor – 7 Mand. Lateral Incisor – 7 Max. Lateral Incisor – 8 Mand. Canine – 9 Mand. 1st Premolar – 10 Max. 1st Premolar – 10 Mand. 2nd Premolar – 11 Max. Canine – 11 Mand. 2nd Molar – 12 Max. 2nd Molar – 12 Mand. 3rd Molar – 17-21 Max. 3rd Molar – 17-21 Eruption Schedule - Primary ! ! ! ! ! Central Incisor – 7 months Lateral Incisor – 11 months First Molar – 15 months Canine – 19 months Second Molar - 23 months * Rule of 4’s (every 4 months another one erupts) * Mandibular teeth usually erupt before their maxillary counterpart. Dental Anomalies ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Macrodontia = teeth are too large Microdontia = teeth are too small Hyperdontia = multiple or extra teeth (called supernumeraries) Anondontia = no teeth Dens in dente = outer surface of the tooth crown invaginates or turns itself inward before mineralization (most frequently affects permanent maxillary lateral incisors) Dilaceration = tooth that has a sharp bend or curve in the root or crown Gemination = tooth attempts to divide itself or partially twin itself by splitting its tooth germ Fusion = two adjacent tooth germs unite Concresence = fusion of cementum of the roots Hypercementosis = deposition of excessive amounts of secondary cementum Dental Anomalies ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Enamel pearls = small masses of excess enamel on the surface of teeth located APICALLY to the CEJ Hutchinson’s incisors & Mulberry molars = irregularly-shaped teeth as a result of congenital syphilis Enamel dysplasia = interruption of enamel formation Enamel hypocalcification = caused by a condition that inhibits the calcification of enamel Turner’s tooth = hypocalcification of a single tooth, usually a maxillary incisor Enamel lamellae = cracks in the enamel caused by developmental problems or trauma Enamel tuft = small area of hypocalcified enamel seen at the DEJ and extending about one fourth to one third of the way through the enamel Enamel spindle = an odontoblastic process that ends up in the enamel Posselt’s Envelope of Motion 1 = Maximum Protrusion (Protruded contact position) 2 = Edge to edge position of incisors 3 = Centric Occlusion (Maximum Intercuspation) 4 = Centric Relation (Retruded contact position) Dot = Rest position 5 = Chewing stroke 6 = Rotation (Terminal Hinge Axis opening) 7 = Translation 8 = Maximum opening TMJ Anatomy TMJ Anatomy ! ! ! ! ! Upper compartment (concavoconvex) = Space between articular disc and temporal bone. Permits TRANSLATIONAL movements. Lower compartment (concave) = Space between articular disc and mandibular condyle. Permits ROTATIONAL movements. Movement on opening = rotation occurs first, then translation The articular disc is avascular and is thickest at the posterior section, followed by the anterior, and thinnest in the middle The retrodiscal pad is an area where much of the blood and nerve supply to the joint is found Muscles of Mastication Muscle Origin Insertion Masseter (superficial head) Inferior border of the anterior two thirds of the zygomatic arch Angle of the mandible on the lateral side Masseter (deep head) Inferior border of the posterior one third of the zygomatic arch and the entire medical side of the zygomatic arch Lateral surface of ramus Temporalis Temporal fossa and temporal fascia Coronoid process and anterior border of the ramus Medial Pterygoid Larger origin = medial side of the lateral pterygoid plate and pterygoid fossa & tiny area of the palatine bone Smaller origin = maxillary tuberosity Medial surface of ramus and angle on the medial side Lateral Pterygoid (superior head) Infratemporal crest of the greater wing of the sphenoid bone Capsule & articular disk of temporomandibular joint Lateral Pterygoid (inferior head) Lateral side of the lateral pterygoid plate Neck of the condyle Maxillary Central Incisor Permanent ! Crown ! ! ! Root = one ! ! Longest and widest anterior tooth Crown wider mesial-distally (M-D) than Facial-Lingually (FL) Cervical dimension M-D approximately equal to F-L Surfaces ! ! ! ! Mesial curvature of cervical line is largest Cingulum located off-center toward distal Narrowest incisal embrasures 3 mamelons and 4 developmental grooves Maxillary Lateral Incisor Permanent ! Crown ! ! Root ! ! One, pointed apex, deviates to distal Surface ! ! ! M-D > F-L (just like the max central incisor) Lingual pit is common Lingual surface most concave of any incisors Notes ! ! May be congenitally absent May appear pointed (“peg shaped”) Maxillary Canine Permanent ! Crown ! ! ! Root ! ! Longest root Cusp ! ! Cingulum large and centered M-D Wider F-L than M-D Mesial cusp ridge is shorter than distal cusp ridge Notes ! ! Most stable and self cleansing tooth Least often extracted tooth Maxillary First Premolar Permanent ! Crown ! ! ! ! Roots ! ! ! ! ! Lingual cusp shorter than buccal cusp Buccal cusp tip placed slightly distal Mesial buccal cusp ridge is longer than distal buccal cusp ridge Lingual cusp tip located toward mesial half of lingual surface Surface ! ! 2 roots (only premolar with two roots) Cusps ! ! Widest of all premolars Greater B-L than M-D Longer occluso-gingivally than all posterior maxillary teeth Mesial surface has pronounced (deep) cervical concavity Occlusal ! Long central groove, deep sulcus, no pits Maxillary 2nd Premolar Permanent ! Crown ! ! ! ! Root = one Cusp ! ! ! ! Two cusps, buccal and lingual cusps are equal in height Mesial inclination of lingual cusp Distal buccal cusp ridge is longer than mesial buccal cusp ridge (opposite of maxillary first premolar) Surfaces ! ! ! Smaller than maxillary 1st premolar More symmetrical and less angular (more ovoid) than 1st premolar No mesial developmental depression Less prominent buccal ridge Occlusal pattern ! Shorter central groove with more supplemental grooves Maxillary 1st Molar Permanent ! Crown ! ! ! ! Roots = 3 Cusps ! ! ! ! ! 4 (2 buccal, 2 lingual) MesialMesial-lingual always largest and highest on any posterior tooth Cusp of carabelli seen lingual to mesialmesial-lingual cusp MesialMesial-buccal longer and wider than DistalDistal-buccal Occlusal ! ! ! ! Largest permanent tooth Broader lingually than buccally Oblique ridge connects the mesialmesial-lingual cusp and distaldistal-buccal cusp Occlusal view of all maxillary molars = rhomboidal shape Rhomboidal shaped occlusal view with obtuse angles at mesialmesial-lingual and distaldistal-buccal Surface ! ! Distal surface – pronounced cervical concavity Long buccal groove with pit Maxillary 2nd Molar Permanent ! Crown ! ! ! ! ! Root = 3 Cusp ! ! ! ! Smaller than 1st molar Mesial-facial line angle most acute Absence of 5th cusp (carabelli) mesial-lingual cusp largest Primary cusp triangle = mesial-lingual, mesial-buccal, and distal-buccal cusps (same for all maxillary molars) Buccal groove does not have a pit Notes ! Small distal-lingual cusp that can be absent creating a 3 cusp tooth Mandibular Central Incisor Permanent ! Crown ! ! ! Root = one ! ! ! Thin M-D and wide F-L Mesial and distal surface concave (also present on mandibular laterals) Surface ! ! ! ! Nearly bilaterally symmetrical Mesial-incisal and distal-incisal angles are sharp, nearly at right angles Cingulum – centered Lingual surface smooth and shallow No grooves, accessory ridges or pits Notes ! Mesial and distal contacts are exactly the same area of the incisal third (unique to mandibular central incisors) Mandibular Lateral Incisors Permanent ! Crown ! ! ! Root = one ! ! ! Tilted distally on the root Broader labiolingually than mesiodistally Narrow M-D Concavities on M-D surfaces Surfaces ! ! Cingulum off-center to the distal Mesial marginal ridge is slightly longer than distal marginal ridge Mandibular Canine Permanent ! Crown ! ! ! Root = one ! ! May be bifurcated Cusp ! ! ! Longest crown of all permanent teeth F-L > M-D Cusp tip displaced lingually Mesial cusp ridge shorter than distal cusp ridge (just like maxillary canine) Surfaces ! Mesial surface of crown almost parallel to long axis of tooth Mandibular 1st Premolar Permanent ! Crown ! ! ! Root = one ! ! ! ! Pointed apex No distal curvature Many have concavities on mesial and distal Cusp ! ! ! ! More prominent buccal ridge than 2nd premolar Bell shaped crown Large pointed buccal cusp Small nonfuctioning lingual cusp High buccal and low lingual pulp horns Occlusal pattern ! ! Small, nonfunctioning Usually no central groove Mandibular 2nd Premolar Permanent ! Crown ! ! ! Root = one ! ! ! Mesial-lingual cusp always larger than distal-lingual cusp Pits and grooves ! ! ! Apex approximates mental foramen Thicker and longer than mandibular 1st premolar Cusp ! ! 5 lobes (Y type) 3 cusps, one buccal and 2 ling Square occlusal outline Central developmental groove “U” shaped or like a crescent Mesial-distal fossae Occlusal pattern ! ! ! Larger occlusal surface than 1st mandibular premolar No mesial-lingual groove or transverse ridge (common on 1st mandibular premolars) 3 types of occlusal surface = Y, H, U type Mandibular 1st Molar Permanent ! Crown ! ! ! ! Root = 2 ! ! Two roots with 3 canals (2nd canal in mesial root) Cusps ! ! ! ! Largest mandibular tooth Largest mesial-distal dimension of any tooth Occlusal outline = similar to a trapezoid 5 (3buccal; 2 lingual), mesial-buccal cusp is largest Distal cusp = smallest Lingual cusp are higher and more pointed (non-supporting) than buccal cusp (supporting) Occlusal pattern ! ! ! 2 transverse ridges, 3 fossae with pits Central groove crooked 2 buccal grooves Mandibular 2nd Molar Permanent ! Crown ! ! Roots = 2 ! ! ! ! ! ! Closer together and straighter than first mandibular molar roots Mesial root not as broad F-L compared to 1st mandibular molar Longer root trunk than mandibular 1st molar Apices are located inferiorly to mylohyoid muscle insertion Cusps = 4 Occlusal pattern ! ! ! ! ! Occlusal outline is rectangular Plus sign (+) More secondary developmental grooves than 1st mandibular molar 2 transverse ridges 3 fossae with pits Buccal groove with buccal pit ...
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