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Exam 3 Notes - NFS 227 Exam 3 Notes FRUITS AND VEGETABLES...

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NFS 227 Exam 3 Notes FRUITS AND VEGETABLES: Plant Organs: -ROOT: Absorbs water and nutrients from soil to plant -STEM: Transportation device- Transports nutrients, stores energy as carbs in stem and supports -LEAVES: Delicate- High energy molecules are made -FLOWER: Reproductive organ- Rarely eat by itself (Head of Broccoli = Flower) -FRUIT: Only part of plant that isn’t related to the rest of it. Storage facility -SEEDS: Reside within fruit. Flowers develop into fruit VEGETABLES: 1) TUBERS: -Underground stems- Storage facility -Ginger Root -Potato -Sunchoke 2) ROOTS: -Beets -Carrots -Parsnip -Turnip -Sweet Potato -Radish 3) BULBS: -Roots come out of roots- Sit at ground and root system is below -Chives -Garlic -Leeks -Onion 4) LEAVES: -Lettuce -Spinach -Cabbage -Collards
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5) SEEDS: -Beans -Corn -Lentils 6) STEMS AND SHOOTS: -Anise -Asparagus -Celery 7) FLOWERS: -Artichoke -Broccoli -Cauliflower 8) FRUITS: -Tomato: Fruit of a vegetable -Avocado -Cucumber -Pepper -Eggplant -Squash CLASSIFICATION OF FRUIT: 1) SIMPLE: Developed from a single ovary and flower a) Citrus: Orange and Grapefruit b) Drupe: Seed enclosed in a pit (peach, cherry) c) Pome: Have core (apples, pears) 2) AGGREGATE: Multiple ovaries in 1 flower -Berries (strawberries, raspberries) 3) Multiple: Cluster of several flowers -Pineapple STRUCTURES: 1) Dermal: Protective covering around outside of plant 2) Vascular System: Transport of nutrients, fluids, and wastes 3) Ground: Remaining inner portion (most edible potion of plant)
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DERMAL SYSTEMS: -Epidermal: Surface -Peridermal: Corklike, tubers (potato) Protective component -Hypodermal: Layers underneath epidermal (middle) VASCULAR SYSTEMS: -Xylem: Water Flows -Pholem: Organic matter (nutrients and wastes) flow GROUND SYSTEM: -Portion we consume -Bulk of edible portion of plant -Parenchyma Cells PLANT CELLS: 1) Parenchyma Cells 2) Collenchyma Cells 3) Sclerenchyma Cells 1) PARENCHYMAL CELLS: (Ground Structure) -Bulk of edible portion of plants -General work cells -Polyhedral: Many sides w/ air spaces- Texture STRUCTURE: -Middle Lamella: Glue b/w cells -Where we find Pectic Substances PECTIC SUBSTANCES: -Acts as glue and keeps cells together -PROTOPLASM ORGANELLES- Mitochondria (respiration) Viscous fluid that contains proteins Plastids: 1) LEUCOPLASTS: Where starch is made 2) CHLOROPLASTS: Responsible for making pigments (chlorophyll is made) 3) CHROMOPLASES: Where carotenoids are made 4) VACUOLE: Flavor- Where the water is located- Water soluble compounds (acids) 5) FLAVONOIDS: Phytochemicals- Contribute pigments, Water soluble
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-Water gives plant cells Turgor -TURGOR: Water pressure -More water = Higher Turgor (Crisp-Apple) 2) COLLENCHYMA CELLS: -Elongated, Fibrous, Chewy -Asparagus, broccoli, celery 4) SCLERENCHYMA CELLS: (Pear) -Woody and gritty FIBER: Polysaccharides: 1) Digestible: -Plant Starch (Amylose and Amylopectin) -Animal Starch (Glycogen) 2) Undigestible: -Fiber -Cellulose -Hemicellulose -Pectin -Gums -Insulin SOLUBLE FIBER: (Viscous) - Easy to disperse in water and doesn’t dissolve -Thickens food -Pectin -Gums -Beta-Glucans (Composed entirely of glucose- Beta 1, 3 bonds) INSOLUBLE FIBER: (Non Viscous) -Hydrate and pull water in
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