Final Exam - NFS 227 Final Exam LIPIDS Fat in Baked...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–4. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
NFS 227 Final Exam LIPIDS: Fat in Baked Goods: -Inhibits gluten formation- Makes product tender -Taking out fat that inhibits the gluten and (losing tenderizer) and putting in 3 different ingredients: 1) Beans -Starchy, lots of carbs -Good fat replacement -Adds in extra water- More water for gluten to form 2) Prunes: -Contain carbs in form of sugar -Even more liquid in prunes 3) Yogurt: -Some carb and lots of protein -No sugar -Lots of water -Drain out extra liquid- The more water = the more gluten development – More tough product More Gluten = Taller product, greater volume FATS AND OILS: -Solid -Liquid at room temp ACETIC- Only 2 carbon, hydrophilic BUTYRIC: -Important Fatty Acid -4:0 Double bonds- Found in butter -Palmitic: Most abundant w/in category (16 C, NO double bonds) -Oleic: Most abundant monounsaturated fat (18 C) -Linoleic: Essential and Omega (18 C 2 double bonds) -Linolenic: Fatty acid (18 C 3 double bonds) Atherogenic: Affect cholesterol levels in blood Stearic Acid: Saturated, 18 carbon fatty acid. -Neutral on blood cholesterol -Found in chocolate
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
CHARACTERISTICS OF FATTY ACIDS: -Chain length -Short: Less than 6 Carbons -Medium: 6-10 Carbons Long: 12 or More Carbons Cis Configuration: -The hydrogen’s attached to the carbon atoms on either end of the double bond are from the same orientation and causing a lower melting point. Trans Configuration: -The hydrogen’s attached to the carbon atoms on either end of the double bond are opposite directions and causing a higher melting point. Unsaturation: -Lack of hydrogen relative to the amount that can be held, a situation characterized by a double bond b/w 2 carbon atoms in the fatty acid chain. Saturated Fatty Acids: -Fatty acids containing all of the hydrogen atoms they can possibly hold. ALL AFFECT MP: -Chain Length -Short Chain = Lower MP -Longer Chain = Higher MP Butyric: 4:0 - 24 °F Stearic 18:0 - 161°F SATURATION: -Unsaturated- Lower MP -Kinky -18:0 = Stearic- 161 °F -18:1 = Oleic- 61 °F -18:2 = Lineoleic- 41 °F CIS – Lower MP -Kink in molecule -Oleic 18:1- Cis 61 °F TRIGLYCERIDE (TRG): -Glycerol backbone combines with OH from carboxyl acid group -Composed of 3 FA esterfied to the glycerol molecule -Max number of FA that can exist in the compound b/c there are no additional hydroxyl groups to which a FA can be esterfied
Background image of page 2
MOST COMMON FATTY ACIDS: 16: 0 = Palmitic (No double bond) 16: 1 = Palmitoleic (1 double bond) 18: 0 = Stearic (No double bond) 18: 1= Oleic (1 double bond) 18:2 =Linoleic – Omega 6 (2 double bonds) – promotes inflammation -Omega 3 does opposite ARRANGEMENT OF FA & TG: -Forms long crystals -Tuning fork or chair MP: -Crystalline structure -Solid fats -Larger crystals form when fat is melted and cooled again
Background image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Image of page 4
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

This note was uploaded on 04/23/2009 for the course NFS 227 taught by Professor Handley during the Spring '08 term at Rhode Island.

Page1 / 10

Final Exam - NFS 227 Final Exam LIPIDS Fat in Baked...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 4. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online