Exam 1 Notes

Exam 1 Notes - Exam 1 Notes CHAPTER 1 THE BEGINNINGS OF...

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Exam 1 Notes CHAPTER 1 THE BEGINNINGS OF MICROBIOLOGY -Microscopy—Discovery of the Very Small -Robert Hooke published Micrographia in 1665 -Anton von Leeuwenhoek was skilled in grinding lenses, and described “animalcules” in a specimen of lake water Experimentation—Can Life Generate Itself Spontaneously? -In the 1600s, many people thought life generated spontaneously from putrid and decaying materials -Leeuwenhoek suggested maggots arose from eggs in the decaying material, not the material itself -Francesco Redi found that if flies were prevented from landing on meat, it did not produce maggots -John Needham claimed that animalcules resulted from decay of more complex organisms -Lazzaro Spallanzani showed that prolonged heating and limited exposure to air decreased the number of animalcules in a specimen -In 1859, Louis Pasteur discredited the idea of spontaneous generation MICROORGANISMS AND DISEASE TRANSMISSSION -Epidemiology—Understanding Disease Transmission -Epidemiology is the study of the source, cause, and mode of transmission of disease -Ignaz Semmelweis determined the source of blood poisoning of women in childbirth -John Snow determined the cause of cholera transmission in London -Variolation and Vaccination—Prevention of Infectious Disease -Variolation involved exposing individuals to dried smallpox specimens -Edward Jenner developed vaccination, inoculating individuals with cowpox The Stage is Set -Advances in microscopy allowed for more investigation of microbes -In 1840, Jacob Henle implicated bacteria in disease causation THE CLASSICAL GOLDEN AGE OF MICRO (1854-1914) -Louis Pasteur Proposes that Germs Cause Infectious Disease -Louis Pasteur proved that yeasts were responsible for fermentation -Pasteurization was his technique of heating to kill pathogens -He proposed the germ theory in 1862 -Pasteur’s Work Stimulates Disease Control and Reinforces Disease Causation -Joseph Lister developed the practice of antisepsis, chemical disinfection of external living surfaces -Pasteur also investigated the cause of cholera, and the silkworm disease (pébrine) -Robert Koch Formalizes Standards to Identify Germs with Infectious Diseases -Koch’s postulates became standards for linking a specific organism to a specific disease
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-Koch Develops Pure Culture Techniques -By adding gelatin to his broth, Koch was able to grow bacterial colonies in a Petri dish Competition Fuels the Study of Infectious Disease -Pasteur experimented with attenuated bacterial cells for use in cholera and anthrax innoculations -Émile Roux and Alexandre Yersin linked diphtheria toxin to bacterial cells -Emil von Behring treated diphtheria with an antitoxin -Elie Metchnikoff described phagocytosis -Pasteur developed a successful rabies vaccine -Koch isolated the tubercle bacillus and determined that water is the key to tuberculosis transmission -Pasteur, Koch, and their colleagues put bacteriology on the map Other Global Pioneers Contribute to New Disciplines in Microbiology -Early observations of viruses were made by Dimitri Ivanowsky, Martinus Beijerinck,
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This note was uploaded on 04/23/2009 for the course BIO 201 taught by Professor Paquette during the Spring '09 term at Rhode Island.

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Exam 1 Notes - Exam 1 Notes CHAPTER 1 THE BEGINNINGS OF...

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