Exam 2 Notes

Exam 2 Notes - Exam Two Notes CHAPTER 10 Foodborne and...

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Exam Two Notes CHAPTER 10 Foodborne and Waterborne Bacterial Diseases FOODBOURNE ILLNESS: - Many Foodborne and Waterborne Diseases Have a Bacterial Cause -Intoxications are illnesses in which bacterial toxins are ingested with food and water -Infections are illnesses in which live bacterial pathogens are ingested and grow in the body -The incubation period is the time between consumption of contaminated material and appearance of symptoms -Clinical symptoms and duration of illness depend on the toxin or microbe, and the infectious dose -Demographics such as age or sanitary conditions can make individuals more or less prone to food/waterborne illness WAYS FOOD OR WATER BECOMES CONTAMINATED: -Meat can be infected during improper slaughter procedure -Fruits and vegetables can be washed with contaminated water -Infected humans can contaminate food they handle through the fecal-oral route -Cross-contamination can occur between foods, or via knife, cutting board, etc. -Water contamination can occur by defecation of infected individuals in public water sources -Improperly stored foods can contain large numbers of pathogens because of rapid multiplication FOODBORNE INTOXICATIONS: -Bacterial Food Poisoning Can Result from an Intoxication -Clostridium botulinum is the source of botulism -C. botulinum produces a deadly exotoxin that attacks the nervous system, causing flaccid paralysis -Death is caused within 1-2 days of symptom onset by respiratory paralysis -If treated early, large doses of antitoxins can neutralize the toxin -Most outbreaks are related to home-canned foods or from foods eaten cold (heat destroys the toxin) -Wound botulism occurs when a wound is infected with C. botulinum -Infant botulism, a.k.a floppy baby syndrome, frequently occurs when an infant is fed honey -Minute doses of botulinum toxin can be used to treat movement disorders and to remove facial wrinkles STAPHYLOCOCCUS: - Staphylococcus aureus causes staphylococcal food poisoning -Toxins are often consumed in protein-rich foods such as meat and fish, or dairy products -The enterotoxin causes gastroenteritis for several hours
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-Food is often contaminated by boils or abscesses on a handler’s skin, or through sneezing -Proper handling, refrigeration, and heating help decrease the risk of contamination CLOSTRIDIUM: - Clostridium perfringens causes clostridial food poisoning -C. perfringens commonly contaminated meat, poultry, and fish -Clinical symptoms require a high infectious dose, and take 8-24 hours to appear FOODBORNE AND WATERBORNE INFECTIONS: TYPHOID FEVER: -Typhoid Fever Involves a Blood Infection -It is caused by Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi ( S. Typhi) -S. Typhi is transmitted by the five Fs: flies, food, fingers, feces, and fomites -It is acid resistant, so passes through the stomach to the small intestine, where it causes ulcers, bleeding, and pain -Invasion of the blood and rose spots indicating blood hemorrhage can occur -Vaccines containing dead or attenuated S. Typhi or polysaccharides from S.
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This note was uploaded on 04/23/2009 for the course BIO 201 taught by Professor Paquette during the Spring '09 term at Rhode Island.

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Exam 2 Notes - Exam Two Notes CHAPTER 10 Foodborne and...

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