Exam 3 Notes

Exam 3 Notes - Exam 3 Notes ROOTS OF JAZZ RHYTHM &...

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Exam 3 Notes ROOTS OF JAZZ RHYTHM & DRUMMING: -Baby Dodds, New Orleans Great -West African Dejembe Player NEW ORLEANS (1865-1920) -Caribbean Music -West African Music -The Blues -Ragtime -Marching Band Music -Plantation Music -Church Music THE ORIGINAL SWING: -Gnawan Musicians- Marrakesh, Morocco -Ewe Traditional Drumming- Ghana GNAWA RHYTHM: -Gnawan Qareqeb Rhythm -Ewe “Agbekor” 12/8 Rhythm -“Gankogui” Bells- Like a cowbell CUBAN CONNECTION: -Slave revolts in Hispaniola (1791-1804) -Spanish/West African musical influences -“Spanish Tinge” (Jelly Roll) -Twice-Daily ferry b/w Havana and New Orleans (Early 20 th Century) AFRO-CUBAN RHYTHM: -Afro Cuban “Abakura” (or “Bembe”) 6/8 Clave -3-2 “Son” Clave MARCHING BANDS & BRASS BANDS: -An American Institution Post-Civil War: “Stars and Stripes Forever” DRUMSET INVENTION: -Experimentation with bass drum pedal in 1890’s -Pedal design made workable by William F. Ludwig (1909) -Innovation driven by economic and space considerations -Evolved as instrument to accompany jazz musicians in New Orleans during the 1920’s
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EARLY NEW ORLEANS JAZZ DRUMMING: -Evolved from “Second Line” drumming tradition -Development of early jazz drumset “styles” -Rhythmic vocabulary from West African, Caribbean and American Military Marching Band traditions DRUMSET: -Bass Drum -Snare Drum -1 Tom Tom -1 Floor Tom -Hi-Hat -Custom Crash -Dark Ride -Dark Crash KENNY CLARKE: -Helped define bebop drumming (expression filled melodies, tempo very fast) -First to shift the time-keeping rhythm from the bass drum to the ride cymbal MAX ROACH: -Pioneer of Bebop drumming ELVIN JONES: -Played with Coltrane -Changed the timekeeping of drums -One of the first drummers to play the drums with different sticks -Innovator of taking Jazz ride pattern and changing it up- Still in 4/4 -Could play behind the beat -Incorporated Afro-Cuban rhythms MODERN JAZZ: BEBOP OF THE 1940S: Charlie Parker (1920-1955) Dizzy Gillespie (1917-1993) 1940’s and on = Modern Jazz BEBOP: -New style of jazz -Charlie Parker 1950’s: -Cool Jazz -Hard Bop -Bossa Nova- Brazilian Samba + US Jazz -Big-Jazz
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-New Orleans Revival -Miles Davis (Cool Jazz -> Neo Traditional) -John Coltrane (Cool Jazz -> Free Jazz) 1960’s: 1970’s:
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Exam 3 Notes - Exam 3 Notes ROOTS OF JAZZ RHYTHM &...

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