Exam 2 Notes

Exam 2 Notes - NFS 337 Exam 2 Notes ICE CREAM: Standard of...

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NFS 337 Exam 2 Notes ICE CREAM: Standard of Identity: -National Dairy Council: min 10% milkfat, 20% total milk solids by wt -Fat adds texture and flavor -Fat and milk solids -Texture and flavor -Sweeteners: Lower MP and FP- Smoother. Lighter, mixable -Gum: Stabilizers (Bind H20 and Increase Viscosity) Prevent premature melting -Monoglycerides: Act as emulsifiers COMMON FOOD ADDITIVIES IN ICE CREAM: AGAR: Thickener- A seaweed derivative ALGINATE: Stabilizer- -Seaweed derivatives that are used as stabilizers -Retain moisture -Makes foods creamier -Extends shelf life CARRAGEENAN: Emulsifier, Stabilizer and Thickener -Type of seaweed (Irish moss) that stabilizes foods by making them gel CELLULOSE: Emulsifier, Stabilizer and Thickener -Component of all plants -Inert bulking agent in foods CITRIC ACID: Preservative, Antioxidant, pH control Agent -Widely distributed in nature in both plants and animals GUAR GUM: Stabilizer, Thickener, Texturizer -Extracted from the seeds of the guar gum plant MALTODEXTRIN: Flavor Enhancer, Stabilizer -A Carb produced from cornstarch -Enhances stability and flavor XANTHAN GUM: Stabilizer -Usually produced from cornstarch ICE CREAM MIX MAKING: Raw Materials-> Mixing -> Pasteurization (70C, 10-30 Min) -> Homogenization =May be distributed as ice cream mix to frozen confections retailers
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SOFT ICE CREAM PRODUCTION: (ABOVE PLUS): Aging (0-4C) -> Freezing (-5C) -> Adding other ingredients (Fruits, Nuts, Etc) HARD ICE CREAM PRODUCTION: (ABOVE PLUS): Packaging -> Hardening (-34C) -> Storage (less than -18C) -> Transportation PREPARATION: -Blend Ingredients -Rapid Cooling -Rapid Freezing- very small fine crystals -Salt And Agitation FREEZING: SALT: -Lowers Freezing Point -Ice melts, forms salt solution -Vapor Pressure -Endothermic Rxn (Ice melts) -80c per g (heat) from mix -Ice cream has sugar-> Lowers FP of mixture -To freeze-> FP has to be lower than normal AGITATION: -Uniform texture -Coalescence of fat globules -Don’t want them to stick together -What to be evenly dispersed -> No breaking emulsion -Incorporation of air -Over-run -Shoot for 70-80% increase of volume 1) Churning ice cream 2) Homogenized fat globules in ice cream mix 3) Fat globules destabilize and coalesce 4) Air Bubble 5) Fat globules move to air interface 6) Resulting ice cream structure ICE CREAM AGING: -Ice crystals start small-> Large -Foam shrinks->Gummy
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CHEESE: CLASSIFICATION OF CHEESE: -Place of origin -Manufacturing process (Artisanal) -Milk Source -Moisture Content (based on fat free cheese mass) US pasteurized cow milk -Imported, Raw-> Age 60 days -Europe and the Middle East: Sheep or goats milk -Iran and Afghanistan: Camel RIPENING: -Bacterial -Mold BACTERIAL RIPENED CHEESE: A) Internal -Cheddar -Colby -Edam -Gouda -Gruyere -Parmesan -Provolone -Romano -Swiss B) EXTERNAL: -Bel Paese -Brick -Liederkranz -Limburger -Monterey Jack -Muenster -Port Du Salut -Trappist MOLD RIPENED CHEESE: A) INTERNAL: -Blue -Gorgonzola -Roguefort -Stilton
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B) EXTERNAL: -Brie -Camembert
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This note was uploaded on 04/23/2009 for the course NFS 337 taught by Professor Handley during the Spring '09 term at Rhode Island.

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Exam 2 Notes - NFS 337 Exam 2 Notes ICE CREAM: Standard of...

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