05_RESP_PHYS - Respiration and Circulation in a...

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Respiration and Circulation in a Representative Invertebrate and Vertebrate
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Objectives • 1. Observe and record the effect of oxygen concentration on the ventilation rate of the crayfish, Procambarus sp. • 2. Observe and record the effect of exercise and submersion on the ventilation rate and heart beat on a vertebrate, Homo sapien. • 3. Observe the blood circulation in the tail of the fish.
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Cellular Respiration Glucose + Oxygen -> Carbon dioxide + Water + Energy •C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 -> 6&& &  6& &  &&&
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Whole Organism Respiration • The process of taking in oxygen and releasing carbon dioxide . • Most multicellular organisms have a circulatory system that moves respiratory gases to and from cells in tissues. • Exception: Insects have TRACHAE, tubes that run from outside openings (spiracles) to tissue and organs and allow O 2 and CO 2 exchange directly with cells.
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Respiratory systems
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Factors Determining Gas Exchange • Surface Area – The rate of gas exchange into a cell or organism depends upon the surface area through which the gas can move. – Organisms smaller than 1 mm have a high surface-to-volume ratio and rely on diffusion for gas exchange. – Larger organisms need to increase the surface area of gas exchange surfaces.
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Surface area is increased in gills by evagination of the respiratory membrane.
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Gills of aquatic organisms are made up of evaginated membranes
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Close up of fish gills showing increase in surface area.
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Huxley, T. (1879). The Crayfish: An Introduction to the Study of Zoology , p. 26.
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Ventilation in crayfish 2nd maxillae bail the water forward. Water pulled into carapace from the rear and above appendages and moves towards the front. Water passes over gills. Gas exchange (O 2 and CO 2 ) occurs between water and blood in gills. •O x y g e n s e n s o r s in crayfish stimulate crayfish to ventilate faster if O 2 level drops. As the volume of water passing over gills increase, the available O 2 increases. Huxley, T. (1879). The Crayfish: An Introduction to the Study of Zoology , p47.
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Gill Arrangement in Procambarus sp.
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Lungs of terrestrial vertebrates arise by invagination (infolding) of the surface membrane.
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Alveoli in vertebrate lung arise by invagination of gas exchange tissue.
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Emphysema results in a decrease of surface area as wall between alveoli are broken down.
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Diffusion: movement of gas molecules down a concentration gradient
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05_RESP_PHYS - Respiration and Circulation in a...

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