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Ruby (programming language)This article is about the programming language. For other uses, see Ruby (disambiguation).Not to be confused with Ruby on Rails.RubyParadigmMulti-paradigm: Object-oriented, imperative, functional, reflectiveDesignedbyYukihiro MatsumotoDeveloperYukihiro Matsumoto, et al.First appeared1995; 23 years agoStable release2.5.1 (March 28, 2018; 22 days ago)[±]Typing disciplineDuck, dynamic, strongScopeLexical, sometimes dynamicImplementation languageC
OSCross-platformLicenseRuby, GPLv2or 2-clause BSDlicenseFilename extensions.rbWebsiteMajor implementationsRuby MRI, YARV, Rubinius, MagLev, JRuby, MacRuby, RubyMotion, MrubyInfluenced byAda,C++,CLU,Dylan,Eiffel,Lisp,Lua, Perl,Python,SmalltalkInfluencedClojure, CoffeeScript, Crystal, D, Elixir, Falcon, Groovy, Ioke,Julia,Mirah, Nu,Reia, Ring,Rust, SwiftRuby Programmingat WikibooksRubyis a dynamic, reflective, object-oriented, general-purpose programming language. It was designed and developed in the mid-1990s by Yukihiro "Matz" Matsumotoin Japan.According to the creator, Ruby was influenced by Perl, Smalltalk, Eiffel, Ada, and Lisp.It supports multiple programming paradigms, including functional, object-oriented, and imperative. It also has a dynamic typesystem and automatic memory management.HistoryEarly conceptMatsumoto has said that Ruby was conceived in
1993. In a 1999 post to the ruby-talkmailing list, he describes some of his early ideas about the language:I was talking with my colleague about the possibility of an object-oriented scripting language. I knew Perl (Perl4, not Perl5), but I didn't like it really, because it had the smell of a toy language(it still has). The object-oriented language seemed very promising. I knew Pythonthen. But I didn't like it, because I didn't think it was a true object-oriented language — OO features appeared to be add-on to the language. As a language maniac and OO fan for 15 years, I really wanted a genuine object-oriented, easy-to-use scripting language. I looked for but couldn't find one. So I decided to make it.Matsumoto describes the design of Ruby as being like a simple Lisplanguage at its core, with an object system like that of Smalltalk, blocks inspired by higher-order functions, and practical utility like that of Perl.The name "Ruby"The name "Ruby" originated during an online chat session between Matsumoto and Keiju Ishitsuka onFebruary 24, 1993, before any code had been written for the language.Initially two names were proposed: "Coral" and "Ruby". Matsumoto chose the latter in a later e-mail to Ishitsuka.Matsumoto later noted a factor in choosing the name "Ruby" – it was the birthstoneof one of his
colleagues.First publicationThe first public release of Ruby 0.95 was announced on Japanese domestic newsgroupson December 21, 1995.