Cosmos - Cosmos Whole Earth Iron 35 Oxygen 30 Silicon 15...

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Cosmos Whole Earth Iron – 35% Oxygen – 30% Silicon – 15% Magnesium – 13% Nickel – 2.4% Sulfur – 1.9% Calcium – 1.1% Aluminum – 1.1% Crust of the Earth Oxygen 46% Silicon 28% Aluminum 8% Iron 6% Magnesium 4% Calcium 2.4% Potassium 2.3% Sodium 2.1% Ratios in the Universe 1(Atomic Weight)Hydrogen – 266,000,000 4Helium – 18,000,000 16Oxygen – 184,000 12Carbon – 111,000 24Magnesium – 10,600 28Silicon – 10,000 56Iron – 9,000 32Sulfur – 5,000 27Aluminum – 850 23Sodium – 600 37Potassium – 35 Reading 1 key terms Temperature – measure of the kinetic energy of the particles Kelvin Temperature scale – 0 is at absolute zero (-273.2 d C) Electron – negatively charged subatomic particle Black body radiation – radiation emitted by a heated object Wavelength of maximum intensity – the wavelength at which the object emits the most radiation (occurs at some intermediate wavelength) Nucleus – positively charge body at center of atom Protons – positively charge subatomic particles
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Neutrons – no charge Isotopes – atoms with the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons Ionization – when electrons are lost from an atom Ion – the atom that has lost one or more electrons in ionization Molecule – two or more of the same atom bonded together Coulomb force – attraction between the positive center (nucleus) of the atom and the negative cloud of electrons around the nucleus Binding energy – the energy that holds the electrons in the atom Quantum mechanics – laws of small particles especially atoms Permitted orbits – electrons can only have orbits of certain sizes Energy levels – orbits in which a set amount of electrons are contained Excited atom – has electrons moving from lower energy levels to higher energy levels Ground state – when electrons are in the lowest energy level. Spectral Classes – OBAFGKM Doppler Effect – apparent change in wavelength due to the motion of the source Blue Shift – star is moving towards earth, wavelength is getting shorter Red Shift – star is moving away from earth, wavelength is getting longer Radial velocity – whether the velocity is directed towards or away from the source during the Doppler shift Calculate the Doppler shift – V/ c = Delt.wav./or.wav. Doppler broadening – has to do with the temperature or volume of the substance Collisional Broadening – caused by collisions and depends on the density of the gas Stellar Parallax ( p ) – is half the total shift of the star Parallax – the apparent shift in position due to the change in position of the observer Distance of parallax is measured in parsec ( pc ) 1pc = 206,265 AU = 3.26 ly Proper motion – expressed in seconds of arc per year, the slight apparent motion of the stars by 10 years or more Flux – energy in Joules per second falling on one square meter Absolute visual magnitude – the apparent visual magnitude the star would have if it was
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Cosmos - Cosmos Whole Earth Iron 35 Oxygen 30 Silicon 15...

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