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chapter13 - Chapter 13 Education and Health Care Expansion...

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Chapter 13 Education and Health Care
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Expansion of Education
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Median Income By Education Level of Schooling Men Women Less than 9th grade $16,321 $ 9,496 9th to 12th grade 20,934 11,136 High school graduate 30,134 16,695 Some college (no degree) 36,930 20,101
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Median Income By Gender Level of Schooling Men Women Associate degree 41,903 21,545 Bachelor’s degree 51,700 32,668 Master’s degree 64,468 40,744 Professional degree 90,878 44,385 Doctorate degree 76,937 56,820
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Social Class, Race–Ethnicity, Education, Occupation, and Income
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Tracking Students in high tracks receive positive effects, while low track students suffer negative effects. Less is expected of lower-track students. Once a student is labeled, the label sticks, regardless if it is accurate.
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Teacher Expectancy Effect What the teacher expects students to do affects what they will do. The self-fulfilling prophecy shows that merely applying a label has the effect of justifying the label.
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Cognitive Ability & Tracking The capacity for abstract thinking. Since early in the 20th century, educators have attempted to measure intelligence by means of standardized ability tests. SAT or IQ tests are intended to measure ability or potential.
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Average SAT Scores, By Family Income Family Income SAT Verbal SAT Math <$10K 429 457 $10–$20K 445 465 $20K–$30K 462 474 $30K–$40K 478 488 $40K–$50K 493 501
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Average SAT Scores, By Family Income Family Income SAT Verbal SAT Math $50K–$60K 500 509 $60K–$70K 505 515 $70K–$80K 511 521 $80K–$90K 532 534 >$100K 549 564
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Average SAT Scores, By
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