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TELECOM. TEST ONE. Book Beginnings of Radio: The creation of radio was due to the efforts of many inventors, especially Marconi, Fessenden, and De Forest, but no one was able to perfect a system of wireless communication. Marconi used his system of wireless communication in ship-ship and ship-shore communication. o This was limited to dots and dashes though. Fessenden built an alternator that generated continuous radio waves that could be transformed to carry speech. o Fessenden tested this on Christmas Eve, 1906 with ships on the eastern coast of the U.S. o The first “broadcast” marked a major breakthrough in the evolution of radio waves. 1910: The most popular way of receiving radio signals was using a crystal set. Crystals sets used galena to hear broadcasts, but couldn’t amplify incoming signals. De Forest created the audion, which amplified signals millions of times, and made galena obsolete. 1910: GE, AT&T, Westinghouse, etc. each held patents on certain elements necessary to manufacture radio transmitters and receiving sets but no one had patents for the entire process. o Consequently, each company produced its own version of the other company’s patent and long legal battles over patent infringements ensued. 1917: US enters WWI and the Navy is given complete control over all radio operations/station. This had two important consequences: o 1. Navy took responsibility for patent infringement ; this allowed the various companies to pool their discoveries and improve radio communication. (Improved hugely by end of war.) o 2. The Navy didn’t want to give back its radio stations and transmitters because it felt that international radio communication shouldn’t be controlled by a company. Eventually, the US bought out Marconi and started the Radio Corporation of Amercica— RCA. RCA, Westinghouse, GE, AT&T agreed to divide the market, but this fell apart because radio was heading away from point-to-point and towards broadcasting. Broadcasting:
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1920: Radio became a national craze; there were several reasons for the great growth of this: o 1. Hobbyists trained in radio communications during the war was eager and available. o 2. Improvements during the war gave radio better range and reception. o 3. Big business realized the money-making potential of radio. KDKA, founded by Frank Conrad in 1920, is the oldest operating system and showed the market for radio broadcasting. Problems with growth for listener: Interference—Many companies operated on a few frequencies. Problems with growth for corporate: Money and the cross-licensing agreement. o Solution: AT&T left the broadcasting business and was granted a monopoly over wire interconnections that were used to link stations together into a network.
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This note was uploaded on 04/24/2009 for the course TELE 3010 taught by Professor L.benjamin during the Spring '07 term at University of Georgia Athens.

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