BOOK NOTES. TEST FOUR. - Chapter 13. There are four main...

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Chapter 13. There are four main social scientific methods: o Experimental methods. Take place in controlled laboratory conditions or in more natural field conditions. o Survey methods. Sample the subjects one time only or continue over time. o Content analysis. A systematic method for analyzing and classifying communication content. o Meta-analysis. A method that looks at a number of studies about a similar topic and summarizes the main findings by using statistical procedures that highlight which results are consistently found. Laboratory Experiments: o Done under tightly controlled conditions and allow researchers to focus on on the effects of one or more factors that may have an impact on the audience. Usually at least two groups are involved; one gets special treatment. o Advantage: They allow researchers to make statements about cause and effect. o Disadvantage: They are done under artificial conditions. Field Experiments: o Occur outside the lab. o Advantage: Naturalness.
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o Disadvantage: Lack of control. Surveys: o Generally consist of a person’s answers to a set of predetermined questions. o Advantage: Realistic approach. o Disadvantage: They can’t establish cause and effect; the assumption that the respondents are truthful. Content Analysis: o Studies segments of TV and radio content in order to describe the messages presented by these media. o Disadvantage: It cannot be used alone as a basis for making statements about the effects of content media. Meta-Analysis; o Looks at many studies in different settings and across a variety of samples. It provides a macroview of the research in a given area and gives a good synopsis of the major findings. o Disadvantage: It can oversimplify a complicated pattern of results and that any design flaws in the original studies that are reviewed will produce misleading conclusions. Theories of Media Effects: o Hypodermic Needle Theory: Mass-communicated messages would have strong and more or less universal effects of the audience they reached. It was though that the media would shoot beliefs into people’s minds, much the same way a doctor inoculates with a needle.
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This thinking came because of WWI. o Limited Effects Theory: This focused on persuasion, especially the kind that goes into political campaigns. This was a two-step flow theory that suggested that media influence first passed through a group of people known as opinion leaders and then onto the rest of the audience. Basically, the mass media were simply one of the many determinants of how people think or behave. Joseph Klapper. o Specific Effects Theory: This represents a middle ground. Researchers realize that media are not all-powerful. There are circumstances under which specific types of media content
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This note was uploaded on 04/24/2009 for the course TELE 3010 taught by Professor L.benjamin during the Spring '07 term at University of Georgia Athens.

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BOOK NOTES. TEST FOUR. - Chapter 13. There are four main...

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