Lab_6 - Lab 6: Meat, Poultry, Fish, Eggs & Cheese...

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Overview of Lab 6: 1. Student presentation on Meat, Poultry, Fish and Eggs 2. Prepare assigned recipes 3. Evaluate sensory properties of prepared recipes. 4. Guest Lecture: “Grilling Meats.” Chef Mike Washburn, Executive Chef at Wegman’s in Ithaca. Objectives: The student should be able to: 1. Identify the nutritive value of meat, poultry, fish and cheese. 2. Determine the effect of oven and end-point temperature on cooking losses, appearance, juiciness, flavor and texture of meats. 3. Prepare and evaluate products made with cheese. 4. Prepare and compare dry and moist methods of meat, poultry and fish cookery.
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FOOD SCIENCE PRINCIPLES FOR MEATS 1. Meat, poultry and fish are excellent sources of protein. The fat content of these products is dependent on the species and for meat and poultry the cut. Higher grades of meat generally have a high saturated fat content. The cholesterol content of all meat, poultry and fish is similar with the exception of organ meats, which are very high in cholesterol. Meats are good sources of iron and zinc, particularly red meats. Pork is an especially good source of thiamin. 2. The tenderness of meats can be predicted by the type of cut. Muscles that are highly exercised such as the abdomen, shoulder, and rump contain large amounts of connective tissue. These muscles are less tender than the infrequently exercised muscles of the upper, central portion of the carcass such as the rib and loin cuts. Other factors affecting tenderness include the degree of aging of the meat after slaughter, age of the animal, processing methods, and cooking methods. 3. Fish muscle is more tender than that of meat because of the small quantity of connective tissue. The proteins are easily coagulated with heat or acid. Hence, cooking times are short and the fish can be “cooked” by an acid marinade. Many populations (Asians, Spaniards, and Central and South Americans) prepare fish by marinating it in an acid solution, such as lemon or lime juice. 4. During cooking, heat affects the following: a. Proteins : The initial heating activates enzymes naturally present in the meat. These enzymes degrade muscle proteins until they are denatured (inactivated) by high temperatures. Thus cooking meat at low temperatures for long periods of time allows more protein degradation than cooking quickly at high temperatures. The denatured proteins fragment and shorten, and cause the meat to shrink. Also, water is lost, dehydrating the muscle and decreasing juiciness and increasing toughness. High oven and broiling temperatures accelerate these events. b.
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This note was uploaded on 04/25/2009 for the course NS 2470 taught by Professor Gier,e. during the Spring '09 term at Cornell University (Engineering School).

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Lab_6 - Lab 6: Meat, Poultry, Fish, Eggs & Cheese...

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