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Exam2_Review - Soc 134 Exam#2 1:00:00 PM Residential...

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Soc. 134 Exam #2 3/10/2009 1:00:00 PM Residential Segregation: There is actually more segregation today, than at the end of the Civil War! o Ex) Milwaukee o Ex) Chicago They type of neighborhood one lives in, is the neighborhood that has a higher proportion of your race. Index of Dissimilarity Measures the amount of segregation between two groups in a city o Criticism = only compares 2 groups Measures the proportion of each group’s population in each of the city’s neighborhoods. Ranges from 0-1, where higher numbers represent more segregation o Dissim ilarity= .5 x ∑ | (P wi / P w) (P bi / P b) | P wi = the population of group w in neighborhood i P w = the total population of group w (whole city P bi = the population of group b in neighborhood i P b = the total population of group b Repeated over and over for each neighborhood of the city, to get D for the city! o Rule of Thumb: Indices <.3 are low segregation Indices .3-.6 are moderate segregation Indices >.6 are high segregation Hypothetical City o There are 1,000 black residents & 10,000 white residents in a city. It has 3 neighborhoods (9% black, 11% black, 10% black). How would you describe this city? 1.) low segregation 2.) moderate segregation 3. high segregation ANSWER = LOW, there are 10% of blacks in the city, and there is the same in each neighborhood.
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Index of Dissimilarity (vs. whites): o Am Indians and Alaska Natives = .472 o Asians = .436 o Latinos = .513 o African Americans = .648 Has gone down a little, but is still the highest! (black vs. white) Black-White Segregation Top 10 Metro Areas in 2000: 1. Detroit = .85 2. Milwaukee =.82 (many consider it to be the most now!) 3. NYC 4. Chicago 5. Newark The Process: Housing discrimination o Property covenants Designed to uphold “desirable residential characteristics”/ Property Value Ex) people would put up signs in their yards to discourage minorities to move in near them! o Redlining When lenders refuse to offer mortgages and home loans in non- white neighborhoods. Considered it to be “too risky” o Realtors / Developers White flight White fight Personal Choice Residential Segregation Social Isolation Concentrated Poverty Or Inferior Education
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Separate and Unequal Minorities are fare more likely to live in poor neighborhoods o In 2000, blacks lived in neighborhoods with median incomes about 70% that of whites The number of high-poverty areas more than doubled between 1970 and 1990 o Areas with a poverty rate of 40% more Gaps exist among the economically successful as well as the disadvantaged. School Resegregation: Despite the growing diversity of the student population, there is now a trend toward resegregation o White flight from neighborhoods and schools o Minority preferences o “unitary” schools often have within -school segregation The Civil Rights Project at Harvard found that school segregation increased 1986-2000 o Little Rock HS, on integration video, is now majority black!
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