Lecture 3 - Chapter 3 Matter and Minerals Atoms: building...

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 Chapter 3  Matter and Minerals Atoms : building blocks of elements ; Elements : building blocks of minerals ; Minerals : building blocks of rocks Minerals:  Building blocks of rocks By definition a mineral is Naturally occurring Inorganic solid Ordered internal molecular structure Definite chemical composition By definition a rock is A solid aggregate of minerals” Composition of minerals Elements Basic building blocks of minerals Over 100 are known (92 naturally occurring) Fig.3.3 Periodical system of elements (created by Dmitrii Mendeleev) Atoms Smallest particles of matter Retains all the characteristics of an element Atomic structure Nucleus Central region called the nucleus Consists of protons (+ charges) and neutrons ( no charges) Electrons Negatively charged particles that surround the nucleus Located in discrete energy levels called shells (cloud like) Octet rule “set of eight” complete outermost level. First level always has only 2 electrons, second and all other shells have max number of electrons = 8 (can be less) 1
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Fig. 3.5 Two models of the atom. Most minerals are chemical compounds Compound - when two or more elements are joined together by chemical bonding they form a compound. Chemical bonding Ionic bonding Atoms gain or lose outermost ( valence ) electrons to form ions Ionic compounds consist of an orderly arrangement of oppositely charged ions ( anions and cations ) 2
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Halite (NaCl) – An example of ionic bonding Covalent bonding Atoms share electrons to achieve electrical neutrality Generally stronger than ionic bonds Both ionic and covalent bonds typically occur in the same compound – Ex. NaCl Covalent bonding = sharing of a pair of electrons between two chlorine atoms to form a molecule of
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Lecture 3 - Chapter 3 Matter and Minerals Atoms: building...

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