Lecture #4 2.15.06

Lecture #4 2.15.06 - HUM 111 CLASSICAL GREECE I: POLITICS...

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HUM 111 CLASSICAL GREECE I: POLITICS AND WAR Chronology: Ionian Revolt: 499 BC Persian Wars: Delian League: 478 BC Golden Age of Athens: 480-430 BC (Pericles) Peloponnesian War: 431-404 BC Non unity of Greece caused this: Invasions from outside forces (Persian wars) & invasions from inside forces (Peloponnesian wars) Rise of the Greek poleis during the Archaic Period Sparta: Peloponnesus; Messenians = helots Education; position of women Athens: Attica, patron deity = Athena Education; position of women Effect of geography on rise of poleis: competition and rivalry; lack of unification, led to: Invasions from outside forces (Persian Wars) Invasions from inside forces (Peloponnesian Wars) Persian Wars: recounted by Herodotus, combined historical fact with myth; prose Herodotus inserts myth with reality Theucidities was the first real history, told the story of the Peloponnesian wars Persia= vast empire (India to Ionia to northeast Africa) Persia (all the way through Mesopotamia, Syria, Palestine, Egypt, up to the black sea, it was a vast empire, way bigger in population and power than Greece Greeks had colonized all around the Mediterranean, the Persians slowly gobbled up Greek colonies, and they would appeal to their home polis for help… but most of the home poleis refused to come to the aid of the Ionians when they were going to be gobbled up by the Persians Ionian cities revolted against Persia, Athens helped Ionia Only one polis and some allies helped the Ionians revolt… eventually the Ionians got fed up with Persian rule… Athens and a couple of her allies came to help the Ionians, this was all the Persians needed for a reason to invade Greece (because Athens got involved in Persian affairs) Persian King Darius retaliated by invading Greece In 490 BC, he started the first Persian war Battle of Marathon: great victory for the Athenians The first major battle was at the site of Marathon, the Persians came down into Greece… the Greece had a strange way of fighting, they wouldn’t drop all they were doing, they would finish olive harvest, or religious ceremony, they would always dawdle, so the Persians could get all the way to Athens almost before the greeks would fight back
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Herodotus said there were twice as many Persians as Greeks (historians tend to exaggerate) but the greeks had the men marching together with interlocked shields, like a big wall. Battle of marathon was a great victory for the greeks… Herodotus said 6000 persians died and only 200 greeks (these are probably inflated numbers) but this was still a great victory for this tiny country The Athenians were standing by, ready to destroy their own city, as it is more noble to destroy their own city than let another place take it and pillage it… so the Athenians were waiting for the news, so they sent a runner 23 to 26 miles to let them know not to destroy the city… he ran up to Athens, to the acropolis, and he yelled “nike” the greek word for
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Lecture #4 2.15.06 - HUM 111 CLASSICAL GREECE I: POLITICS...

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