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Chapter 5 Notes - St ructure and functions of Biological...

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Structure and functions of Biological Molecules Chapter 5 Macromolecules Four main classes o Carbohydrates, lipids, protein, nucleic acids o 3 of the 4 are organic compounds Polymer- is a long molecule consisting of many similar or identical building blocks o Linked by covalent bonds o Made of monomers o Constructed from 40 to 50 common monomers Monomers- repeating units that serve as the building blocks of a polymer Condensation reaction or dehydration reaction o Monomers that are connected by a reaction in which two molecules are covalently bonded to each other, through the loss of a water molecule o One molecule provides the hydroxyl while the other provides the hydrogen o Enzymes aid in speeding up this process Hydrolysis- a process the dissembles a polymer into a monomer o Requires water to be added for the reaction to work Carbohydrates Include both sugars and polymers of sugars. Monosaccharides- are the simplest, simple sugars o Molecular formula CH 2 O o Glucose common monosaccharide o Depending on the location of the carbonyl group Determines if it is Aldose or Kestose Sugar names end in –ose Classifying sugars is the size of the carbon skeleton Normally 3-7 carbons long o Asymmetric carbons- meaning carbons in the middle.\ o In aqueous solutions they form rings o Respiration- cells extract energy in a series of reactions starting with glucose molecules The carbon skeleton is also synthesized for energy Disaccharides- are double sugars, consisting of two monosaccharides bonded together by covalent bond. o Joined by glycosidic linkage, a covalent bond o Ex. Sucrose, table sugar Its two monomers are glucose and fructose Polysaccharides- macromolecule, polymers with 100-1000’s of monosaccharides o Joined by glycosidic linkages
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o Serve as the storage material, hydrolyzed as needed to provide sugar for cells o Are the building material for structures that protect cell or the whole organism o Function determined by its sugar monomers and by the positions of its glycosidic linkages o Plants store polysaccharides as starch A polymer of glucose monomers, included in chloroplast Represents stored energy Amylase- unbranched starch Amylopectin- complex and branched Glycogen- how animals polysaccharides o Structure Cellulose polymer of glucose Used in cell walls of plants Glucose forms a rings o Alpha o Beta o Differ only in the location of the hydroxyl group
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