Chapter 6 Notes

Chapter 6 Notes - Chapter 6 Tour of the cell Cells All...

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Chapter 6 Tour of the cell Cells All organisms are made of cells and are the simplest form Microscopes o Light microscope Visible light is passed through a specimen Magnification- is the ratio of an object’s image size to its real size Resolution- is a measure of the clarity of the image Contrast- which accentuates differences in parts of the sample o Electron microscope Focus a beam of electrons through the specimen or onto is surface Scanning electron microscope Study the surface of the specimen Transmission electron microscope Take a slice of the specimen to study Disadvantage is that it kills the specimen Organelles- are membrane enclosed compartments Cell fractionation- takes cells apart and separates the major organelles and other subcellar structures form one another. o Done with a centrifuge Prokaryotic o Bacteria and Archaea o bounded by a plasma membrane functions as a selective barrier that allows sufficient passage of oxygen, nutrients, and wastes to service the cell as the cell increases in the size, the volume grows proportionately more than its surface area the smaller the object the greater ratio of surface area to volume cytosol- semifulid jellylike substance o contain chromosomes- which have genes o DNA is not is a membrane or nucleus Nucleoid- means DNA is concentrates in a region that is not membrane enclosed Cytoplasm- interior of the cell Eukaryotic o protists, fungi, animals, plants o bounded by a plasma membrane functions as a selective barrier that allows sufficient passage of oxygen, nutrients, and wastes to service the cell
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as the cell increases in the size, the volume grows proportionately more than its surface area the smaller the object the greater ratio of surface area to volume cytosol- semifulid jellylike substance o contain chromosomes- which have genes o DNA is in the nucleus, which is bounded by a double membrane o Are generally larger than prokaryotic cells o Nucleus- contains most of the genes in the eukarytic cell o Nuclear envelope- encloses the nucleus separating the contents from the cytoplasm double membrane lipid bilayers with associated proteins pore complex- regulates in entry nd exit of most protein and RNA and macromolecules form the nucleus nuclear lamina- a netlike array of protein filaments that maintains the shape of the nucleus by mechanically supporting the nuclear envelope Nuclear matrix-a framework of fibers extending throughout the nuclear interior. Chromosome- structures that carry the genetic information Made up of chromatin- a complex of protein and DNA Human has 46 chromosomes Nucleolus- a prominent structure within the nondividing nucleus o Ribosome’s- Are complexes made of ribosomal RNA and protein, are the cellular components that carry out protein synthesis. Build protein in two cytoplasmic locales
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This note was uploaded on 04/26/2009 for the course BIOL 111 taught by Professor Rizzo during the Spring '07 term at Texas A&M.

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Chapter 6 Notes - Chapter 6 Tour of the cell Cells All...

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