Chapter 8 Notes

Chapter 8 Notes - Chapter 8 An int roduction to metabolism...

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Chapter 8 An introduction to metabolism Metabolism an emergent property of life that arises from interactions between molecules within the orderly environment of a cell manages the material and energy resources of a cell o release energy by breaking down molecules catabolic pathways- metabolic pathway- begins with a specific molecule, which is then altered in a series of defined steps, resulting in a product o catalyzed by a specific enzyme anabolic pathways- consume energy to build complicated molecules from simpler ones, o Energy released from the downhill reactions of catabolic pathways can be stored and the used to drive the uphill reactions on anabolic pathways. Bioenergetics- the study of how energy flows through living organisms Energy- is the capacity to cause change Kinetic energy- energy of motion Heat or thermal energy- is kinetic energy associated with the random movements of atoms or molecules Potential energy- the stored energy Chemical energy- potential energy available for releases in a chemical reaction. o Catabolic reactions release energy to break bonds Thermodynamics- the study of the energy transformations that occur in a collection of matter o Isolated system- is unable to exchange either energy or matter with its surroundings o Open system- energy and matter can be transferred between the system and its surroundings o First law- energy can be transferred and transformed, but cannot be created or destroyed. Principal of conservation of energy o Entropy- a measure of disorder or randomness o Second law- every energy transfer or transformation increases the entropy of the universe. o Spontaneous- a process that can occur without an input of energy Some are slow, while others are instantaneous Biological order and disorder o Living systems increase the entropy of their surroundings as predicted by thermodynamic law o The entropy of a particular system, such as an organism, may actually decrease as long as the total entropy of the universe.
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Free Energy - is the portion of a system’s energy that can perform work when temperature and pressure are uniform throughout the system. G is used in expressing free energy
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This note was uploaded on 04/26/2009 for the course BIOL 111 taught by Professor Rizzo during the Spring '07 term at Texas A&M.

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Chapter 8 Notes - Chapter 8 An int roduction to metabolism...

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