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Chapter 9 Notes - Chapter 9 Cellular Respiration Catabolic...

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Chapter 9 Cellular Respiration Catabolic Pathways Fermentation- is a partial degradation of sugar that occurs without the use of oxygen. Aerobic respiration- oxygen is consumed as a reactant along with organic fuel o Done by most eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells Cellular respiration- includes both aerobic and anaerobic processes o Organic compound + O = CO 2 + water + energy o Glucose sugar C 6 H 12 O 6 o 686 kcal/mol Redox reactions- electrons are transferred o Oxidation-the loss of electrons from one substance o Reduction- addition of a electron to another substance o Reducing agent- donates the electron o Oxidizing agent- accepts the electron o Not all redox reactions involve the complete transfer of electrons from one substance to another Some change the degree of electron sharing in covalent bonds o The more electronegative the atom is, the more energy is required to take an electron away from it. o Hydrogen is transferred from glucose to oxygen Respiration does not oxidize glucose in a single explosive step o Electrons are stripped from the glucose o NAD+ - nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide An electron acceptor Functions as the oxidizing agent during respiration o Dehydrogenases remove of a pair of hydrogen atoms Oxidizing it Delivers 2 electrons and 1 proton to NAP+ Electrons lose very little of their potential energy when they are transferred from glucose to NAP+ o Electron transport chain- break the fall of electrons to oxygen into several energy releasing steps Molecules and proteins in the mitochondria Electrons removed from glucose by NADH o
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