Chapter 12 Notes

Chapter 12 Notes - Chapter 12 The Cell Cycle Cell division...

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Chapter 12 The Cell Cycle Cell division Reproduction of cells Cell cycle- the life of a cell from the time formed from a dividing parent cell until its own division into two cells Cell division involves the distribution of identical genetic material-DNA-to two daughter cells. A dividing cell duplicates its DNA, allocates the two copies to opposite ends of the cell, and only then split into daughter cells Genome- a cell’s endowment of DNA, its genetic information Chromosomes- contain DNA molecules Somatic cells- diploid number of chromosomes and everything but reproductive cells Gamete cells- haploid number of chromosomes and are the reproductive cells Chromatin- complex of DNA and associated proteins o Linear DNA molecule o Few thousand genes o Specify an organism inherited traits Distribution on chromosomes After DNA is duplicated, the chromosomes are condensed Each chromatin fiber becomes coiled and folded, making them shorter Sister chromatids- contain identical DNA molecules that are initially attached all long their lengths by adhesive protein complex called cohesions. Centromere- a specialized region where two chromatids are closely attached. Mitosis- is the dividing of the nucleus, is usually followed by cytockinesis Cytokinesis- the division of the cytoplasm Human has 46 chromosomes, get 23 from each parent Meiosis- is the process where gametes are produced o Yields daughter cells o That have only one set of chromosomes Phase of the Cell Cycle Mitotic (M) phase- includes both mitosis and cytokinesis
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Chapter 12 Notes - Chapter 12 The Cell Cycle Cell division...

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