Chapter 13 Notes - Chapter 13 Meiosis and sexual life cycle...

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Chapter 13 Meiosis and sexual life cycle General Heredity- is the transmission of traits from one generation to the next is called inhertnce. Variation Genetics- is the scientific study of heredity and hereditary variation Inheritance of genes Genes- code information in the form of hereditary units Gametes- reproductive cells that carry genetic information Humans have 46 chromosomes in almost all of their cells Each chromosome consists of a long strand of DNA molecule elaborately coiled in association with various proteins One chromosome includes thousands of genes, each witch is a specific sequence of nucleotides within the DNA molecule Locus- genes specific location along the length of a chromosome Asexual reproduction- is a single individual is the sole parent and passes copies of all its genes to its offspring o Derived by mitosis by parent o Clone- a group of genetic identical individuals Sexual reproduction o Two parents arise to offspring that have unique combinations of genes inherited from two parents o Vary genetically from their siblings and both parents Fertilization and Meiosis Life cycle- is the generation-to-generation sequence of stages in the reproductive history of an organism, from conception to production of its own offspring Somatic cell-any cell other than gametes, has 46 chromosomes Karyotype- images of the chromosomes are arranged in pairs, starting with the longest chromosomes Homologous chromosomes- the two chromosomes composing a pair have the same length, centromere position, and staining pattern Female (XX) Male (YX) Sex chromosome- the X and Y that determine the sex of the species Autosomes- all the other chromosomes
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