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Chapter 3 - 2 Number the atoms in the chain 3 Identify and...

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Sheet1 Page 1 Chapter 3: Organic Compounds: Alkanes and their Stereochemistry 3.1 Functional Groups alkene: C=C alkyne: carbon-carbon triple bond arene: aromatic ring alkyl halide: carbon bonded to a halogen alcohol: C-O ether: C-O-C phosphate: R-PO4 amine: C-N thiol: C-SH sulfide: C-S-C disulfide: C-S-S-C aldehyde: terminal C=O ketone: internal C=O carboxylic acid: COOH ester: ether version of carboxylic acid thioester: sulfide version of carboxylic acid amide: nitrogen version of carboxylic acid nitrile: carbon triple bonded to nitrogen nitro: carbon bonded to a positive nitrogen bonded to two oxygens 3.2 Alkanes and Alkane Isomers Isomers: compounds that have the same numbers and kinds of atoms but differ in the way the atoms are arranged constitutional isomers: differ in order of connectivity, branching, etc. (different properties) 3.3 Alkyl Groups 3.4 Naming Alkanes Prefix-Locant-Parent-Suffix 1. find the parent hydrocarbon a. use the longest continuous chain b. if two of equal length are present, chose the one with the largest number of branch points
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Unformatted text preview: 2. Number the atoms in the chain 3. Identify and number the substituents 3.5 Properties of Alkanes Sheet1 Page 2 not very reactive- need extreme conditions (free radicals): heat, peroxides, or UV radiation 3.6 Conformations of Ethane/ 3.7 Conformations of Other Alkanes torsional strain: associated with eclipsing interactions steric strain: two electron clouds too close together Anti Conformation: staggered to give least steric strain, 180 degrees Gauche Conformation: local energy minima, 60 degrees Stereoisomers: no change in connectivity Confomational Isomers: different energy due to bond rotation Angle strain: expansion or compression of the angle away from the ideal (rings) chair conformation of cyclohexane eliminates angle strain, torsional strain, and steric strain 1,3-diaxial interactions: sterics ring flips: a functional group switches from axial to equatorial or vice-versa...
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