exam3 - Chapter 8 I. Defining and classifying groups A. A...

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Chapter 8 I. Defining and classifying groups A. A group is defined as two or more individuals, interacting and interdependent, who have come together to achieve particular objectives B. A formal group with designated work assignments establishing tasks. 1. The behaviors that one should engage in are stipulated by and directed toward organizational goals C. Informal groups are alliances that are neither formally structured nor organizationally determined 1. These groups are natural formations in the work environment that appear in response to the need for social contact D. Command and task groups are dictated by the formal organization, whereas interest and friendship groups are informal alliances E. A command group is composed of the individuals who report directly to a given manager F. Task groups represent those working together to complete a job task 1. A task group’s boundaries are not limited to its immediate hierarchal superior it can cross command relationships G. An interest group affiliate to attain a specific objective of shared interest H. Friendship groups are formed because the individual members have one or more common characteristics II. Group properties: roles, norms, status, size, and cohesiveness A. Work groups have properties that shape the behaviors of members and make it possible to explain and predict a large portion of individual behaviors within the group, as well as the performance of the group itself B. Roles 1. All group members are actors, each playing a role . 2. A role is a set of expected behavior patterns attributed to someone occupying a given position in a social unit 3. Why do people join groups? a. Security - by joining a group, individuals can reduce the insecurity of having to stand on their own, people feel stronger, have fewer self-doubts, and are more resistant to threats when they are part of a group b. Status - inclusion in a group that is viewed as important by others provides recognition and status for its members c. Self - esteem - groups can provide people with feelings of self-worth. That is, in addition to conveying status to those outside the group, membership can also give increased feelings of worth to the group members themselves
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d. Affiliation - groups can fulfill social needs. People enjoy the regular interaction that comes with group membership. For many people, these on-the-job interactions are their primary source for fulfilling their needs for affiliation. e. Power - what cannot be achieved individually often becomes possible through group action. There is power in numbers f. Goal achievement - sometimes it takes more than one person to accomplish a particular task, so people pool talents, knowledge, or power. In such instances, management will rely on the use of formal group 4. Different groups compose different role requirements on individuals C. Role Identity 1. Certain attitudes and actual behaviors are consistent with a role, and they create role identity 2. People have the ability to shift roles rapidly when they recognize that the situation and its demands clearly
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exam3 - Chapter 8 I. Defining and classifying groups A. A...

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