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Session 20 - Introduction to Databases Bin Gu Ph.D...

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Introduction to Databases Bin Gu, Ph.D. Assistant Professor of IM [email protected] Ph: 512-471-1582; Fax: 512-471-0587
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Problem: Gaining knowledge of customers and making effective use of fragmented customer data. Solutions: Use relational database technology to increase revenue and productivity. Data access rules and a comprehensive customer database consolidate customer data. Demonstrates IT’s role in creating customer intimacy and stabilizing infrastructure. Illustrates digital technology’s role in standardizing how data from disparate sources are stored, organized, and managed. NASCAR Races to Manage Its Data
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File organization concepts Computer system uses hierarchies Field: Group of characters Record: Group of related fields File: Group of records of same type Database: Group of related files Record : Describes an entity Entity : Person, place, thing on which we store information Attribute: Each characteristic, or quality, describing entity E.g. Attributes Date or Grade belong to entity COURSE Organizing Data in a Traditional File Environment
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The Data Hierarchy The Data Hierarchy A computer system organizes data in a hierarchy that starts with the bit, which represents either a 0 or a 1. Bits can be grouped to form a byte to represent one character, number, or symbol. Bytes can be grouped to form a field, and related fields can be grouped to form a record. Related records can be collected to form a file, and related files can be organized into a database. Organizing Data in a Traditional File Environment
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Problems with the traditional file processing (files maintained separately by different departments) Data redundancy and inconsistency Data redundancy: Presence of duplicate data in multiple files Data inconsistency: Same attribute has different values Program-data dependence: When changes in program requires changes to data accessed by program Lack of flexibility Poor security Lack of data sharing and availability Organizing Data in a Traditional File Environment
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Traditional File Processing Traditional File Processing The use of a traditional approach to file processing encourages each functional area in a corporation to develop specialized applications and files. Each application requires a unique data file that is likely to be a subset of the master file. These subsets of the master file lead to data redundancy and inconsistency, processing inflexibility, and wasted storage resources. Organizing Data in a Traditional File Environment
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Database: Collection of data organized to serve many applications by centralizing data and controlling redundant data Database management system: Interfaces between application programs and physical data files Separates logical and physical views of data Solves problems of traditional file environment Controls redundancy Eliminated inconsistency Uncouples programs and data Enables central management and security The Database Approach to Data Management
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