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2-14-08 notes - General Themes Active vs Passive Transport...

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February 14, 2008 General Themes Active vs. Passive Transport across membranes Surface area- volume ratios Negative feedback- air conditioning Positive feedback- in the stomach Counter-current exchange mechanisms Evolution of adaptations for survival Homologous structure Human physiology is highlighted throughout CQ: Ectotherms: A) Can be homeothermic B) Usually have a body temperature that varies with the environment C) Are considered “cold blooded” organisms D) Are considered “warm blooded” organisms E) A and B “Warm blooded” and “cold blooded” don’t have a biological basis The fundamental problems with circulatory and respiratory systems: o That they need exchanges with the environment (gases and nutrients) o Surface area: volume ratio because multicelluar organisms cannot obtain some of the interior cells Solutions (circulation) o Diffusion/ open and closed circulatory systems
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Closed circulatory systems are found in most vertebrates
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