2-12-08 notes

2-12-08 notes - pharynx to the esophagus Can be voluntarily...

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2/12/2008 CQ: Which of the following is a problem faced by animals as they increase in size? A) Decreased surface-to-volume ratio B) Reproducing in aqueous environments C) The tendency for larger bodies to be more variable in metabolic rate D) Inability to move at large size E) A, B, C Do not need to memorize the 8 essential amino acids for adults Essential nutrients in our diet o Amino Acids 8 essential needed for protein synthesis o Fatty acids Saturated: eggs, cheese, meat, butter Unsaturated: corn oil, olive oil High-density lipoproteins (HDL): “good” fats Low-density lipoprotein (LDL): “bad” fats Trans-fats o Hydrogenated unsaturated fats o Cheap and used excessively in processed food o Similar structure to unsaturated fats but there are more hydrogen bonds Minerals o Inorganic compounds Calcium Phosphorus Iron magnesium
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o Enzyme co-factors o Normal body functions Food processing o Ingestion o Digestion o Absorption o Elimination Ingestion o Eat food and then the esophageal sphincter controls the movement of food from the
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Unformatted text preview: pharynx to the esophagus Can be voluntarily controlled • Digestion o Begins in the mouth o Mostly occurs in the stomach and small intestine • Positive feedback o Pepsinogen and HCl are secreted into the lumen of the stomach o HCI converts pepsinogen to pepsin o Pepsin then activates more pepsinogen, starting a chain reaction. Pepsin begins the chemical digestion of proteins • Elimination o Occurs in the colon o Main function is to recover water from what is no longer digestible • Things we can live without o Gallbladder Good for storage • Dental adaptation of animals for different diets o Carnivores Incisors and canines for ripping flesh o Herbivores Teeth with broad ridged surfaces for chewing plants o Omnivores Unspecialized dentition KEY THEMES • Positive feedback • Diffusion • Surface area/volume • adaptations...
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This note was uploaded on 04/26/2009 for the course EBIO 1220 taught by Professor Demig-addams during the Spring '07 term at Colorado.

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2-12-08 notes - pharynx to the esophagus Can be voluntarily...

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