Archaeology Study Guide

Archaeology Study Guide - ARCHAEOLOGY STUDY GUIDE: EXAM ONE...

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A RCHAEOLOGY – S TUDY G UIDE : E XAM O NE F ALL 2008 -Definition of Archaeology : the study of material culture in time & space -Subfields of Anthropology : Anthropology is divided into four subfields – Archaeology, Linguistics, Biological Anthropology (Primatology, Human Variation, Paleoanthropology) And Cultural Anthropology (Ethnography, Ethnology) -James Ussher : Archbishop who determined that the Earth had been created in 4004 BC, and that God had begun the work “upon the entrance of the night preceding the twenty- third day of October. He arrived at this number in 1650 through detailed historical research, analysis of astronomical cycles, and reference to biblical genealogies. 13,14,15,17,19 -Moundbuilders Controversy : a story that shows how cultural stereotypes can be disputed by archaeological evidence. Modern archaeology helps to further understanding of the past, and as a result, revisions of current speculation are made. 623 -Uniformitarianism : the belief that the appearance of the earth could be understood as resulting from the slow action of known processes over a very long period of time. This belief, first championed in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, allowed for a great age of the earth. The processes that we see shaping the world today, are the same processes that were used in the past. 15-25 -Field Techniques vs. Field Strategies : Techniques are detailed procedures for doing something. Strategies are plans you follow in using a technique. -Vertical vs. Horizontal Excavation : in each excavation type, you must always start digging with flat units. Arbitrary levels often cause problems because sometimes, natural strata levels aren’t perfectly flat so often levels “mix” together or “overlap.” *-Importance of Archaeological Survey : Basic Survey Strategies - Information about the characteristics of objects (length, color, weight), and information about the associations of objects (where were they found). Strengths: Weaknesses: -Gatecliff Site: The Gatecliff Rockshelter is a prehistoric rock shelter located in Nevada , United States , where people camped over a period of 7,000 years. It was discovered by David Hurst Thomas in 1970. The excavation (in Monitor Valley) was "vertical"--in some places nearly 40 feet deep, with cultural deposits stacked up within a floor area of 300 square feet. Thousands of cultural objects have been uncovered, including projectile points, grinding stones, sagebrush bark mats, and slate shards etched with cryptic geometric designs. -Wallace Site : South-Central Nebraska (Clyde Wallace) – 1500 years old; Oblong bump contained many artifacts that were ground up because site had been plowed for 50 years; Dark layer and a light layer – then in one later a piece of orange (oxidized sediment – meaning a fire had been burned on it … “Fireplace”); Started to dig one-meter squares – from a vertical trench into a horizontal; Right where the dark and light sediment met,
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Archaeology Study Guide - ARCHAEOLOGY STUDY GUIDE: EXAM ONE...

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