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KIDNEYS - Kidneys Osmoregulation-Salt and Water balance I...

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Kidneys: Osmoregulation-Salt and Water balance I. Mammalian Urinary System: The Kidney A. Anatomy of the human kidney : they are shaped like a kidney bean that is approx. 5” long and 2.5” wide. 1. renal cortex: this is the outer layer of the kidney where the million+ nephrons(a fine tubule in the kidneys of vertebrates that filters and excretes waste materials from the blood and produces urine) per kidney are located. 2. renal medulla: the next layer to the inside of the cortex is the medulla. This is a compartment of very highly concentrated solutes. 3. renal pelvis: The most inner compartment of the kidney. This is where urine collects before flowing through the ureter to the bladder. B. Nephron types : the functional unit of the kidneys where urine is produced. 1. cortical nephrons: represent 85% of human nephrons.(shallow) 2. juxtamedullary nephrons: the loops of Henle of these neurons extend deep into the medulla. They are specialized for concentrating urine(deeper more efficient) A. Filtration of blood 1. blood flows from afferent arterioles into a capillary bed called the glomerulus- mechanically filters blood. 2. blood pressure: unusually high for a capillary bed because the afferent arteriole is larger diameter than the efferent arteriole.
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