IMMUNE - The Immune System I. Nonspecific defenses: acts...

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The Immune System I. Nonspecific defenses: acts against everything A. First line of defense : the first priority of defense is not to let pathogens enter our body. 1. Surface barriers: skin and epithelial mucosa. Listed below are some of the contributors to this defense that fortify the barrier. a. antibacterial enzymes (lysozymes) and antibodies b. acidity or low pH: stomach c. mucus membranes: almost all internal epithelium barriers have mucus membranes. Also the lacrimal apparatus of eyes, ciliated mucus respiratory membranes. d. Wax: ears e. Sebum: oily secretions of skin sebaceous glands functions like mucus. f. Mutual symbionts: bacteria and fungi. B. Cellular and chemical defenses (2 nd line of defense): when the external barrier is compromised. 1. Phagocyte (a white blood cell that engulfs and ingests foreign particles, cell waste material, and bacteria) WBCs: neutrophils -most abundant, circulate in blood, destroy something then die; monocyte circulates in blood but then turns permanently into macrophages -located in connective tissue, and eosinophils- attack larger types of pathogens 2. natural killer cells: lyse and kill virus-infected body cells and cancer cells 3. inflammatory response: this is triggered whenever body tissues are injured, as in a burn, a scrape or cut, a chemical irritation of an insect bite, etc. a.
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IMMUNE - The Immune System I. Nonspecific defenses: acts...

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