Digestion - have an effect on the organs Long-term...

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1 Energy Balance First Law of Thermodynamics Energy output External Work Internal work Energy can be converted About 50% of nutrient molecules are converted to heat. Metabolic rate is the rate of energy use. • BMR – Direct calorimetry (heat) – Indirect calorimetry (oxygen)
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2 What affects BMR Thyroid hormone is primary factor Sleeping MR is actually lower – Energy balance • Neutral • Positive • Negative Compensatory mechanisms and diet… What makes us hungry? Controlled by the hypothalamus - determined by many inputs Arcuate nucleus - receives many signals, highly innervated Neuropeptide Y – Melanocortins These influence release of neuropeptides elsewhere that in turn
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Unformatted text preview: have an effect on the organs Long-term maintenance • Adipocytes (fat storage) also secrete hormones • Two classes – Adipokines (adipose tissue is an endocrine gland) – Leptin (remember the fat mice?) • The more fat, the more leptin in the blood 3 Insulin • Also involved in long-term weight control • Inhibits NPY cells Other players in the game • Hunger -• Lateral Hypothalamic area and paraventricular 4 Nucleus tractus solitarius • Satiety center for the brain • Cholecystokinin (CCK) one of the most important players. • Released from the duodenal mucosa Obesity Anorexia 5 Digestion and Nutrient Absorption 6 7 8 9 10 11 12...
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