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Gas Exchange - Gas Exchange in Animals The importance of...

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1 Gas Exchange in Animals The importance of surface area to volume ratio Where is all the oxygen? Recall Fick’s Law of Diffusion from an earlier lecture Air or water • Altitude Water temperature A Catch 22 Special Problem faced by aquatic ectotherms What about the carbon dioxide?
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2 SA/V Minimize distance Ventilation Perfusion Avian breathing Measuring Lung Volume • Spirometer
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3 How do human lungs work? Vocal folds Lung Surface Area Breath Cycle Changes in volume Surfactant Pressure changes in thoracic cavity
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4 The importance of blood Most oxygen in the blood is transported bound to hemoglobin. Hb + O 2 HbO 2 Small amount of oxygen is dissolved in the plasma Binding of oxygen to Hb • Hemoglobin responds quickly and effectively to small changes in oxygen demand due to cooperative binding of oxygen
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5 • Myoglobin, a molecule found within muscle cells, stores oxygen for use by the mitochondria of muscle cells and imparts the characteristic red color to muscle.
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