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Anthropology 265 Study guide

Anthropology 265 Study guide - Anthropology 265 Study guide...

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Anthropology 265 Study guide 1. Our Darwin Heritage A. Ideology of 19 th C. Christian Europe Job of scientist was to describe gods plan Believed in a static universe, not able to change Believed the biblical account that the world was created in 4004 bc Believed in fixivity of nature Fixivity of nature-All forms of life created by god and did not change\ To challenge this was heretic Evolution called transformation B. Lamarck’s Synthetic theory of evolution Descendant of Heraclitus, Heraclitus from modern Turkey 450-500BC. Famous for saying “Nothing endures but change”. Lamarck coined the term biology He believed that humans evolved directly from chimps He was a nomanalist – No need for names of species, just names, could be named differently by someone else Inheritance of acquired characteristics- Effects of events that occur during the lifetime of an organism could be incorporated into the heredity genes and could be passed down to the next generation He believed in an inner drive for perfection, this affected the genetic structure 1. Buffon’s influence Preceded Lamarck 1749 wrote the Histoire naturelle 44 vols. Buffon saw that environments changed, if an organism was to survive it also had to change Buffon believed the earth to be older than 500,000 years Recognized the environment as an agent of change in species 2. Synthetic theory of evolution 4 causal forces Adjust to changing environments Frequent spontaneous generation Inner drive for perfection Inheritance of acquired characteristics C. Darwin’s voyage on the Beagle( 1831-1836) Put on boat to be a companion for the captain, read bible, have dinner Darwin dropped out of medical school to study theology Influenced by a teacher Grant, introduced him to the ideas of Lamarck On the voyage he witnessed lots of variation, began to change beliefs First believed god was part of evolution, then realized he was not needed in the process Became an agnostic
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1. Lyell’s legacy Uniformatarism- earths features are a result of an on going process, needed lots of time(created deep time), the present is the key to the past 2. Data Collection Darwin was more impressed with the mocking birds than finches When he returned he gave all his specimens to experts Capt. of the beagle kept the records and also the valet, not Darwin Started to recognize some fossils looked like living species D. Two great contributions Demonstrated biological change of populations through time Darwin’s definition of evolution- genealogical descent with modification E. Reasoning based on Malthus Malthus, too much population not enough food causes lots of competition Potential for geometric increase Struggle for existence Variation is everywhere Elimination is selective Natural selection causes evolution F. Theory of natural selection Based on analyzing data, looking at causal forces 3 Data sets 1.
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