THEORY X, THEORY Y, AND THEORY XY MANAGEMENT OF MCGREGOR
THEORY X MANAGEMENT THEORY X MANAGEMENT MANAGEMENT OF MCGREGOR In his 1960 management book, THE HUMAN SIDE OF ENTERPRISE, Douglas McGregor made his mark on the history of organizational management and motivational psychology when he proposed the two theories by which managers perceive employee motivation. He referred to these opposing motivational methods as THEORY X AND THEORY Y MANAGEMENT. Each assumes that the manager’s role is to organize resources, including people, to the best benefit the company. However, beyond this commonality, they’re quite dissimilar. According to McGregor, Theory X leadership assumes the following: Work is inherently distasteful to most people, and they will attempt to avoid work whenever possible. Most people are not ambitious, have little desire for responsibility, and prefer to be directed. Most people have little aptitude for creativity in solving organizational problems. Motivation occurs only at the physiological and security levels of Maslow’s Needs Hierarchy. Most people are self-centered. As a result, they must be closely controlled and often coerced to achieve organizational objectives. Most people resist change. Most people are gullible and unintelligent. Essentially, theory x assumes that the primary source of most employees’ motivation is MONETARY, with SECURITY as a strong second.
THE HARD APPROACH AND SOFT APPROACH
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