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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 6: Motivation Topic I: The Nature of Motivation Motivation is a group of factors that drive and direct behaviors. Processed Underlying Motiva- tion. Drives: Reducing Tension Homeostasis: Finding a good level, middle ground between very high arousal (drugs: ie caffeine) and too low (sedatives) Incentives: Being pulled by pleasure and goals. (ex is over-eating because something tastes so good and afterward you feel bloated and too full) Apart from physiological needs, psy- chological needs are important. Ex: helping others Drive reduction explanation: the notion that we are motivated to satisfy drives and thereby re- duce tension Homeostasis: a relatively stable state or level. Often an equilibrium between 2 extremes. Homeostatic explanation: the notion that we are motivated to behave in ways that will maintain an optimal level of arousal. Incentive explanation: the notion that we are motivated by a desire to achieve pleasure or attain goals Abraham Maslow: a psychologist who suggested that motives/needs could be organized in a hierarchy Hierarchy of needs: a way of organizing needs from psychological, which must be satisfied first, through self-fulfillment, which can be satisfied when other needs are met. May be organized from survival to fulfillment. EX: self-actualization (fulfill ones potential and be creative), esteem needs (self-esteem, accomplishment and respect), belongingness and love needs (acceptance by others, love and to be loved), safety needs (security and safety), and physiological needs (oxygen, food, water and temperature). Topic II: Hunger What you need to know Physiological factors in hunger and eating: contractions of the stomach Metabolism: the process by which the cells in the body produce and use energy. Process of living. Glucose: the source of energy that cells use in metabolism. Glucose means sweet, in fact, it tastes sweet and when it is the blood it is often called blood sugar. Levels in the blood and glucose is dumped in the bloodstream where it is taken to cells everywhere. In your liver there is a process where it measures the level of glucose. If it gets too low, it sends a mes- sage to the hypothalamus and stimulation of those areas causes you to become hungry. You eat and your glucose level increases and message to hypothalamus says stop being hungry. Fat cells: cells that are used to store glucose. You store small amounts of glucose in active cells and store massive amounts of energy. Stroke is interruption of blood flow to the brain and the cells then die. Fat cells are simply storage bins for glucose. When you use up all the glucose stored in a muscle, then you go to the fat cells to use that glucose. When you get out of breath while running its because the glucose in muscle cells ran out then a second wind is due to the movement of glucose from fat cells to muscle cells. **Distance runners eat lots of carbs because it turns into glucose. When you hit a wall you simply run out of energy and cannot move....
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- Spring '08