Chapter 11.docx

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Chapter 11: Cotton, Slavery, and the Old South The Cotton Economy o Most important economic development in mid-19 th century South: shift of economic power from “upper South” (original states) to “lower South” (new states) Shift reflected growing dominance of cotton in the southern colony The Rise of King Cotton Decline of the Tobacco Economy o Much of upper South continues the cultivation of tobacco Market was unstable: prices were subject to frequent depressions Rapidly exhausted land difficult for growers to remain in the same place for long o Many farmers in old tobacco growing regions moved westward o Southern regions of the coastal South relied on the cultivation of rice Demanded substantial irrigation Long growing season Cultivation remained in relatively small areas o Sugar growers were located along the Gulf coast Enjoyed profitable market However, it requires intensive labor and long growing time Faced major competition with Caribbean plantations: did not spread o Cotton was another popular crop Similar to rice and sugar Could only grow along the coastal regions of Southeast Short-Staple Cotton o Hardier and coarser Could grow in variety of climates and soils Harder to process (seeds difficult to remove) Cotton gin solved the problem o Demand for cotton grew rapidly Ambitious people moved to uncultivated land opened after relocation of the tribes and established cotton growing region Spread of Cotton Production o Between 1807 and 1815, total number of cotton spindles increased o Until 1814, textile factories were mostly in New England and produced only yarn and thread Families operated hand-looms and weaved cloth at home
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o Francis Cabot Lowell developed power loom that was better than English counterpart Organized Boston Manufacturing Company Founded first mill in American to carry spinning and weaving under a single roof Important step in revolutionizing American manufacturing and shaping character of early industrial workforce British ships swarmed into American ports unloading cheap manufactured goods to recapture lost market A Protective Tarif o In 1816, Congress won passage of tarif law that limits competition from abroad o Objections from agricultural interests Had to pay higher prices for manufactured goods as a result Transportation Government-Funded Roads o Idea of using government funds to finance road building was not new o In 1807, Jeferson’s secretary of Treasury, Albert Gallatin, proposed revenues from Ohio land sale should finance a national road Both president and Congress approved o Heavy traffic soon moved o Despite heavy tolls , roads made transportation costs across mountains lower Manufacturers moved from Atlantic to Ohio Valley in unprecedented qualities Steamboats o Steam-powered shipping expanding rapidly on the rivers and Great Lakes Development of steamboat lines already well underway before War of 1812
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