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Problem set 5key

Problem set 5key - Problem set 5 Key Chapter 15 1 Gene...

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Problem set 5 Key – Chapter 15 1. Gene regulation in eukaryotes: in a multicellular organism with a life cycle with several stages such as yourself, a tomato plant or a moth, please describe the two overall reasons that regulation of gene expression is important in those organisms. It is useful for these organisms to have tissue or cell specific gene expression and to have specific genes expressed during the different stages of the organisms life cycle. Think about what those different stages are for the organisms listed above. 2. What is the difference between general transcription factors and regulatory (or specific) transcription factors? b) What is a regulatory response element and what are the two different types? General transcription factors (discussed in chapter 12) are needed for transcription of all genes. Regulatory or specific transcription factors are used to regulate expression of specific genes. See examples in figures 15. 3. Please list the three ways that regulatory transcription factors can be modulated and give a specific example of each from the text. Regulatory transcription factors can be modulated by a) binding of effector molecules, b) formation of homo or heterodimers and c) covalent modifications of the transcription factor itself (see Figure 15.5). Figures 15.6 and 15.7 have examples: a) the glucocorticoid hormone is an effector molecule that binds to the regulatory transcription factor, the glucocorticoid receptor; b) two glucocorticoid receptors bind to form a homodimer (15.6) and in 15.7 two CREB proteins are bound together; c) the CREB proteins must be phosphorylated to activate transcription. 4. What is the difference between an open conformation and an open complex? Be specific and include in your answer the process that each is relevant to.
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