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Review Ch 13 - Review Sheet for Chapter 13 Biology 340 Fall...

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Review Sheet for Chapter 13, Biology 340, Fall, 2007 1. Translation – review the overview of translating information from mRNA to a linear chain of amino acids (polypeptide) that involves initiation, elongation and termination. See Figure 13.2. 2. In 1902 Garrod first suggested the relationship between genes and proteins (note that this is about the time that Mendel’s results were rediscovered). Review the disease he studied, alkaptonuria, and the metabolic pathway for the breakdown of phenylalanine. He established the Mendelian basis for the disease and correctly connected heritance with enzymes involved in metabolic processes. 3. Beadle and Tatum – one gene– one enzyme. That basic theory has been modified since that time, to include the fact that many proteins are not enzymes and may be composed of polypeptides from more than one gene. How else has the definition of a gene been modified? 4. Genetic code – it is degenerate (redundant) primarily at the third codon position and a bit at the first codon position. The genetic code is not degenerate (redundant) at the second codon position. It is also nearly universal. What is the meaning of those statements? The actual code minimizes the effect of mutations with regard to amino acid substitution. You can see this for yourself (to certain extent) by color coding the amino acids in the genetic code (as they are shown in the table itself) using the different types of amino acids as in Figure 13.5. 5. Crick and his colleagues studied rII mutants in bacteriophage T4 to determine the number of bases in a codon. How are the rII mutants distinguished from the r+ wild-type phage?
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