Medieval Jewish Civilization Exam 1 notes

Medieval Jewish Civilization Exam 1 notes - MJC Exam 1...

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MJC Exam 1 Notes 1/12/09 Turning points in Jewish history 1280 BCE = exodus from Egypt to their own land (God saves Jews) 721 BCE = 2 kingdoms—fall of Israel to Syria (Judea still stands) 587 BCE = conquest by Babylonians 538 BCE = return to Judah (Persian conquest) o Torah is compiled o 444 BCE = Torah officially promulgated as constitution 538-321 BCE = Persian rule o Most in Judea, Babylonia; starting to move (Egypt) o Accelerated during Hellenistic era (Alexander) Circa 100BCE – 100CE: lots of literature End of 2 nd temple period Judeans live in Palestine/Israel or in Diaspora but maintain identity with those in Palestine/Israel 1 God, covenant (contractual relationship), Torah (revealed at Mount Sinai to Moses after exodus from Egypt), Temple (central of cult/worship of God supervised by hereditary priesthood, sacrifices, liturgy developed reciting parts of songs attributed to King David/prayers) o Main principles of Judaism everywhere o Yahweh = God 70 CE = key turning point—destruction of 2 nd temple Diaspora: o 1. Greco-Roman (Greek = Septuagint) o 2. Babylonia (Persian rule, Hebrew, Aramaic) o West: Morocco, Spain to East: Egypt, North Africa, S. Europe, Asia minor (Greece), Middle East, Babylonia (Iraq), Persia (Iran)
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o Judah/Yahud/Judea; Palestine/Israel Aramaic, Hebrew Roman rule: Christian rule after 325CE o Synagogue (“gathering place”—Greek)—Greco-Roman Judean community center Primarily social then turns into religious service but still think of Temple as focal point of worship Judah (name of Southern kingdom, Jerusalem = capitol) o Yahud (Persian) o Judea (under Greeks and Romans, Galilee north of here) o Palestine (Roman empire, derived from Philistines) o Israel (Northern kingdom)—place, people (Jews), land (Palestine) Judeans think of themselves as true people of Israel (Jacob), descendents of Jacob Sectarianism in society—different forms of Judaism and politics proposed (not all Judeans part of these groups, unaffiliated) Diaspora taxed to support Temple Sectarian groups o Essenes/Dead Sea Scrolls (Qur’an)—sectarian groups, leave Jerusalem, Temple is illegitimate Sadducees, Pharisees (political parties) o Sadducees—associated with priestly aristocracy (power base, support), Temple is it o Pharisees (“separatists”)—few priestly families, Josephus, power base non- priests, scribes, after 70 CE don’t form backbone of Rabbinic Judaism, important in development of Christianity o Key points: Believe in resurrection of dead Ritual actions, meals of fellowship, ritual purity of all (not just priests); Temple = focal point with ideas external to it
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Particular about ways and observance of laws Developed oral tradition about what laws mean (interpretation) 70CE = Temple destroyed, revolt against Romans 115CE = revolt, Jews banned from Jerusalem; Egyptian revolt 135CE = Essenes disappear, Sadducees peter out, some Pharisees ask to develop study circles in
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Medieval Jewish Civilization Exam 1 notes - MJC Exam 1...

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