morality and medicine practice test 1

morality and medicine practice test 1 - Morality and...

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Morality and Medicine Practice Exam 1 Short answer: 1. Cognitive criterion is the most liberal and the weakest standard of brain death. If a person shows no chance of recovery of awareness, memory, or reason, then he/she is considered non-human. The irreversibility standard holds that if a person has no chance of recovery from unconsciousness, as determined by a neurologist, he/she is considered dehumanized. The Harvard criteria is the most conservative standard of brain death and says that if the person shows no responsiveness to external stimuli, no spontaneous breathing, 2 flat EEG’s within 24 hours, lack of bodily movements, and reflexes, then a person is considered dead. 2. Kantian ethics proposes that decisions be made based on duty, not by weighing the consequences. The decision must be universalizable and treat humans as ends in themselves, not as the means. They believe that a lottery system should be used instead of prioritizing when medical supplies run low. Utilitarian’s believe that consequences matter and not intent or motive. This is also known as Consequentialism. Thus, if 2 physicians exist, one which treats physicians because she really cares about them and another because he knows that treating patients will earn big money, a Utilitarian would say that both are moral. Mill’s Principle of Harm says that the government should not limit a person’s actions unless it puts other people at harm. However, Utilitarian’s believe that some people should be sacrificed in order to maximize the number of people who are saved. The fundamental belief of a Utilitarian is that a right act should produce the great amount of good consequences for the greatest number of beings. This may result in the permissibility of torturing a group of terrorists in order to save more people, which is in direct violation of Mill’s Principle of Harm.
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