Drugs and Behavior exam 2 review

Drugs and Behavior exam 2 review - Drug Class/source...

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Drug Class/source Absorption/administr ation Distribution Metabolism Excretion General action Alcohol Depressant Fermentation/distillation from sugars 10% = stomach, 90% = SI; depends on rate of consumption, concentration of alcohol, condition of stomach, carbonation Water and lipid soluble, even distribution throughout body, easily pass BBB and blood-placental barrier Alcohol dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase; 0 order kinetics Lungs (5%), urine (95%) Drug interactions; alcoholism Barbiturates Depressant Determined by lipid solubility and route of admin (IV, oral) Determines duration of action BDZ Depressant Determined by lipid solubility and route of admin (IV, oral) Determines duration of action GHB Depressant Very rapid absorption, easily crosses BBB Rapid Opiates Narcotic analgesic Poppy sap Medical: oral (first pass effect), IM, epidural, transdermal Recreational: inhaled, IV, intranasal, subcutaneous Passes placental barrier, not very lipophilic, brain has active transport mechanisms to eliminate opiates (brain < body); heroin = 10X more potent than morphine Heroin morphine (psychotropic effects); codeine morphine; morphine brain; codeine brain Urine, feces, many excreted unchanged, morphine< codeine< methadone (half lives) Acts on postsynaptic receptors, axo-axonic transmission, autoreceptors; activates mesolimbic pathway Cocaine Stimulant Coca bush in South America Chewed leaves, chemical extraction (free base, crack— highest conc. Of cocaine, speedball) Rapid by enzymes in blood and liver (.5-1.5 hr half life) Sympathomimetic
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Lipophilic; smoking = rapid onset of action with strong psychological dependence Amphetamine s Stimulant Not naturally occurring; ephedrine and cathinone only naturally occurring “amphetamines” Oral, snorted, smoked, binges/runs, combine with other drugs such as barbiturates and heroin (speedball) Lipophilic; smoking = rapid onset of action with strong psychological dependence
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Drugs and Behavior exam 2 review - Drug Class/source...

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