73912243-Flow-Over-Weirs.docx

73912243-Flow-Over-Weirs.docx

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UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA FACULTY OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING CPE 453 No. Title Allocated Marks (%) Marks 1 Abstract/Summary 5 2 Introduction 5 3 Aims 5 4 Theory 5 5 Apparatus 5 6 Methodology/Procedure 10 7 Results 10 8 Calculations 10 9 Discussion 20 10 Conclusion 10 11 Recommendations 5 12 Reference 5 13 Appendix 5 TOTAL MARKS 100 Remarks: Checked by : --------------------------- Date : NAME : MOHAMMAD AKMALHAKIM BIN ZAKARIA STUDENT NO. : 2010229424 GROUP : EH2213B EXPERIMENT : FLOW OVER WEIRS DATE PERFORMED : 27 OCTOBER 2011 SEMESTER : SEMESTER 3 PROGRAMME / CODE : CPE 453 SUBMIT TO : PUAN SUHAIZA HANIM HANIPAH
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Contents 1. Abstract ........................................................................................................................................ 3 2. Introduction ................................................................................................................................. 3 3. Objectives of the Experiment ...................................................................................................... 3 4. Theory .......................................................................................................................................... 4 1. Rectangular Notch ................................................................................................................ 4 2. Triangular ( vee ) Notch ........................................................................................................ 5 5. Apparatus and Material ............................................................................................................... 6 6. Methodology ............................................................................................................................... 6 7. Results and Calculations .............................................................................................................. 7 7.1 Calculation for Rectangular Notch ......................................................................................... 7 7.2 Calculation for Triangular Notch ............................................................................................ 8 7.3 Graph for Rectangular Notch ................................................................................................. 8 7.4 Graph for Triangular Notch .................................................................................................... 9 8. Discussion .................................................................................................................................. 11 9. Conclusion .................................................................................................................................. 11 10. Experimental Precaution ......................................................................................................... 11 11. References ............................................................................................................................... 12 12. Appendix .................................................................................................................................. 12 2
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1. Abstract This report will discuss about the flow characteristics over a rectangular notch and a triangular(V) notch. The discharge coefficient of the fluid flow are also have been defined through this experiment. In order to achieve the objective, every depth of water with different height and two different notches was recorded in conducting experiment. The amount of volume is set constant for easier calculation. Graphs have been plotted from the data obtained for analyzing the flow characteristics. For the rectangular graphs, the discharge coefficient decrease slowly, then it reaches almost constant value for the rest. Very differ from triangular notch which is, the discharge decrease smoothly but the values are way higher than rectangular notch. From the result, it can be shown that the triangular notch have more discharge coefficient rather than the rectangular notch. 2. Introduction Fluids mechanics has develop as an analytical discipline from the application of the classical laws of statistics, dynamics and thermodynamics, to situations in which fluids can be treated as continuous media. The particular laws involved are those of the conservation of mass, energy and momentum and, in each application, these laws can be simplified in an attempt to describe quantitatively the behaviour of the fluid. A weir is an opening in the sidewall of a tank at top. The stream of liquid coming out the weir is known as a nappe, sheet, or vein. There is no difference between a notch and weir except that the former is a small structure and has sharp edges. A weir is generally an overflow structure, with a broad crest, built across an open channel. The terms air and weirs are used synonymously in general. The top of weir wall over which the liquid flows is known as the sill or crest. The head under which the weir is discharging is measured from the crest to the free surface. A weir or notch is generally used for measuring the flow of liquids.
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