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Diabetes and Drug TreatmentsDiabetes and Drug TreatmentsWalden University1
Diabetes and Drug TreatmentsIntroductionDiabetes mellitus (DM) leads to hyperglycemia due to varying degrees of insulin resistance and impaired ability to secrete insulin. According the American Diabetes Association (ADA, 2017), the different types of DM are type one, two, gestational and juvenile diabetes. The Center for Disease Control (CDC, 2017), estimated that 30.3 million people across the life span about 9.4% of the United States Population has DM in 2015. Type two DM effects 90 – 95% and type one is responsible for 5 – 10% of all cases. The purpose of this paper is to describe the effects of type two DM on people, the different types of DM, and explain one common drug used to treat type two DM. Type One, Two, & Gestational Diabetes MellitusHuether and McCance (2017), explained that in type one DM occurs due to autoimmune pancreatic beta cell destruction in genetically susceptible individuals that may be triggered by environmental exposure. Brutsaert (2017), states that, due to progressive autoimmune degeneration over years the islets of Langerhans insulin secreting bets-cells ability to adequately control plasma glucose levels diminishes. Huether and McCance (2017), recommend treating with supplemental insulin to balance plasma glucose levels.Huether & McCance (2017), found that people have developed resistance to insulin due to over saturation of insulin and inadequate insulin secretion. Brutsaert (2017), discusses how thecombination of hepatic insulin resistance inadequately suppressing hepatic glucose production and impaired peripheral glucose uptake from peripheral insulin resistance results in hyperglycemia. Huether and McCance (2017), explain how in the early part of the disease insulin2
Diabetes and Drug Treatmentslevels are very high, then when the disease progresses the production of insulin will decrease to the point of exacerbating hyperglycemia. According to Calabria (2017), the most common type in children is type one DM, which is responsible for two thirds of all new cases. Historically rare in children type two DM has been increasing along with childhood obesity and now is responsible for one third of cases in children (Laureate Education, 2012).Huether and McCance (2017), explain how during pregnancy gestational diabetes can occur. According to Friel (2017), women who are overweight may have an increase of insulin that is greater than plasma glucose levels, become resistant to insulin, and even thin women can become insulin-deficient. Gestational diabetes accounts for 5% of all pregnancies in white women and the rate may be increased for certain ethnic groups like Pacific Islanders, Asians, Indians, American Indians, and Mexican Americans (Friel, 2017). Huether and McCance (2017), stated that if women get gestational diabetes they are at risk for type two diabetes in the future.