5 - Chapter 9- Memory The Phenomenon of Memory Memory- any...

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Chapter 9- Memory The Phenomenon of Memory Memory - any indication that learning has persisted over time, our ability to store and retrieve information Flashbulb Memory Flashbulb Memory - Unique and highly emotional moment leading to a clear, strong, and persistent memory (not free from errors) Stages of Memory Encoding Storage Retrieval (ex. Keyboard (encoding) Disk (storage) Monitor (Retrieval)) Information Processing The Atkinson-Schiffrin (1968) three-stage model of memory includes a) sensory memory, b) short term memory , and c) long-term memory. Problems with the Model - Some information skips the first two stages enters LTM automatically - We select (through attention)- important information - Short-term memory is more complex Working Memory Alan Baddeley (2002)- auditory and visual processing controlled by the central executive. An episode buffer allows simultaneous verbal and visual (talk and drive) (frontal for complex thinking, parietal and temporal for visual and auditory) Encoding: Getting Information In How We Encode 1. Automatic- space/time/frequency/the episodes of life 2. Effortful- new and unusual, or more abstract (school work) Effortful Encoding and Rehearsal Ebbinghaus: Amount remembered depends on the time spent learning Nonsense syllables : TUV YOF GEK XOZ Serial position effect- immediate test- recency, delay test- primacy (more review) Memory Effects Next-in-line Effect: so anxious about being next, you don’t remember input from the person immediately before you, but you can recall what other people around you say Spacing Effect: better retention when rehearsed over time Serial Position Effect: recall better for first and last items on list, but poor for
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middle items, depending on delay of test. What We Encode- Encoding by meaning Encoding by Images Encoding by organization Visual Encoding Mental pictures (imagery) are a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding Method of Loci List of Items: Imagined Locations: Charcoal Backyard Pens Study Bed Sheets Bedroom Hammer Garage Rug Living Room Link Method List of Items Newspaper Shaving Cream Pen Umbrella Lamp Involves forming a mental image of items to be remembered in a way that links them together Organizing Information for Encoding Break down complex information into broad concepts: chunking or hierarchy Chunking: Organizing items into a familiar, maneageable unit. Try to remember the numbers below. Acronyms- another way of chunking ROYGBIV Please Excuse My Dear Aunt Sally Soh Cah Toa Hierarchy Complex information – broad concepts… subdivided into categories/subcategories Encoding Summarized in a Hierarchy Storage: Retaining Information- Three Types of Memory
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Events > Sensory Memory >Working Memory >Encoding >Long Term Or >Working Memory <Retrieval < Long Term Or >Working Memory to Retrieval Sensory Memory Whole Report- the exposure time for the stimulus is so small that items cannot be
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This note was uploaded on 04/29/2009 for the course PGS 11653 taught by Professor Kate during the Spring '09 term at ASU.

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5 - Chapter 9- Memory The Phenomenon of Memory Memory- any...

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