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Unformatted text preview: REVIEW TEST TWO Billion dollar damage map – where do fire, hurricanes, tornadoes, floods, blizzards, nor’easters, heat waves, freezes occur? Fire- Northwest (CA, Nevada) Hurricanes- Southeast (TX, FL) Tornadoes- Middle of Country and East (Missouri) Floods- Northwest and Middle of Country Blizzards- TN, NC, PA Nor-easters- Northeast! Heat Waves- Southeast (TX, OK, GA) Freezes- CA Thunderstorms- condensation of large quantities of water vapor in clouds create energy, heat air, and cause violent updrafts. Pulls surrounding air in, raindrops form, and friction pulls air down to the ground creating lightning, thunder, hail, winds, and tornadoes. Life cycle Developing- Toweing cumulus cloud indicates rising air, little rain, 10min Mature- Hail, heavy winds, lightning, rain, tornadoes, black or dark green appearance, 10-20min Dissipating- rainfall decreases in intensity, strong winds, lightning Single cell- Ordinary Single Cell Thunderstorms are the most common, but the others are responsible for a vast majority of severe weather. Multiple cell- Multicell Storms are composed of several individual single cell storms, each one at a different stage of development: cumulus, mature, and dissipating, so they can last for several hours. Supercell- Supercell Thunderstorms are single cell storms that almost always produce dangerous weather by initiating strong wind gusts, large hail, dangerous lightning, or tornadoes Map of thunderstorm frequency of the USA Hail- A type of precipitation formed when a raindrop is repeatedly circulated above and below the freezing level in a cloud, with each cycle freezing more moisture onto the hailstone until it becomes to heavy to stay aloft Lightning- Flashes of light caused by tens of millions of volts of electrical charge heating the air to temps of 15,000C to 30,000C Step leader- A stepped leader is a stream of weakly charged particles that flows from the cloud – it moves towards the ground, starting and stopping, and sometimes branching, trying to find the path of least resistance. upward positive leader- return stroke- Once a channel of ionized air is established between the cloud and ground this becomes a path of least resistance and allows for a much greater current to propagate from the Earth back up the leader into the cloud. This is the return stroke and it is the most luminous and noticeable part of the lightning discharge. USA national lightning detection network- sensors transmit data to satellite, satellite relays info to earth station, data is transmitted to NCC via landlines, NCC processes data, Processed data is relayed back to satellite, Lightning data is displayed within seconds of occurrence. Map of lightning strikes in the world Speed of sound of thunder – 1130’/sec Microbursts – phases are contact, outburst, cushion Dust storm- a windstorm that lifts up clouds of dust or sand Sahara, USA Dust wall- The leading edge of a duststorm, which looks like a knobby vertical or convex wall when viewed from the clear air ahead of the storm...
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This note was uploaded on 04/29/2009 for the course GPH 23108 taught by Professor Brazel during the Spring '09 term at ASU.
- Spring '09